Occupational medicine is the branch of clinical medicine most active in the field of occupational health. Occupational health physicians work closely with the occupational health team which consists of Occupational Health Nursing Professional, Industrial Hygienists, Biostatisticians, Public Health Specialists, र Biomedical Engineers (namely those specializing in Ergonomics). In the United States it is one of the three medical specialties (also including aerospace medicine र public health र general preventive medicine) encompassed by the American Board of Medical Specialties recognized specialty of preventive medicine. Its principal role is the provision of health advice to organisations र individuals to ensure that the highest standards of health र safety at work can be achieved र maintained. Occupational physicians must have a wide knowledge of clinical medicine र be competent in a number of important areas.
Occupational health should aim at: the promotion र maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental र social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; placing र maintenance of a worker in an occupational environment adapted to उनका physiological र psychological equipment and, to summarise, the adaption of work to man र of each man to उनका job.
Areas of focus [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Occupational hazards to health [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Occupationally related disease र ill-health are an important cause of morbidity र mortality in the world. The occupational health team must be aware of the work hazards, understand how to assess the risks in a particular workplace र how these should be controlled, as well as be able to recognise, treat र control occupational disease should it occur.
Categories of Work Hazards (also called "Work Factors") [सम्पादन गर्ने]
In many countries the need of Occupational Health involvement in employment is backed up by legislation.
Examples of Occupational Health Hazards: [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Car accidents, Motor-vehicular accidents (MVA's)
- Ionizing radiation
- Sun Exposure (UVA र UVB rays)
- Heat Stress र dehydration
- Tobacco Smoke, smog, indoor air pollution
- Work-related carcinogens
- Aerosols, fumes, smoke
- Materials management
- Musculoskeletal Disorders
- Repetitive Motion
- Vibration white finger
- Work stress/strain
- Decision Lattitude
- Work safety climate
- Coping (psychology)
- Personality (also called personality preference or typology)
- Power (sociology) or power politics
References: Plog, B.A., Niland, J., & Quinlan, P.J. (2002). Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: National Safety Council.
Levy, B.S. & Wegman, D.H. (2000). Occupational Health: Recognizing र Preventing Work-Related Disease र Injury (4th ed). Philadephia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
LaDou, J. (2004). Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine (3rd ed.). New York: Lange/McGraw-Hill.
Rogers, B. (1994). Occupational Health Nursing: Concepts र Practice. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.
Assessment of disability र fitness for work [सम्पादन गर्ने]
No matter how good an individual's clinical treatment may be, if employees end up losing their job it has in part failed them. Assessment of an individual's fitness to carry out specific jobs, र their rehabilitation र return to work after illness is an important role of occupational physicians. These tasks can only be carried out by practitioners who have a detailed knowledge not only of human health, but also of the specific work situation.
Communications [सम्पादन गर्ने]
The occupational physician is required to communicate with clinical colleagues responsible for the primary care of the workers, with other health professionals such as occupational hygienist (also called industrial hygienists), ergonomists र occupational health Nurses, active in the multi-disciplinary practice of occupational health, as well as with management, trade unions र staff representatives in the workplace.
Research [सम्पादन गर्ने]
The workforce is the principal customer of occupational health research, carried out to increase knowledge on particular aspects of health hazards at work, or to ascertain the safety or otherwise of specific employment in a specific situation.
Occupational health law र ethics [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Occupational physicians must be aware of the extensive health र safety legislation in some countries as it affects their practice, as well as ensuring that they maintain accepted ethical standards, particularly in relation to the medical confidentiality of data regarding individual workers.
Health promotion [सम्पादन गर्ने]
The workplace can provide an ideal opportunity र environment to promote good health. The occupational physician must be able to organise, provide र evaluate health promotion programmes which meet the health needs of the specific workplace where they are being undertaken.
Management [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Occupational physicians are doctors - yet their role demands more. As well as demonstrating competence in related issues, they must also be well versed in the principles र practice of business र financial management.
The environment [सम्पादन गर्ने]
The environment protection act defines pollution in terms of harm to health. The occupational physician's role as health adviser to industry inevitably involves the doctor in the consideration of any environmental hazards emanating from the workplace. Of course there is great variation in the emphasis given to these aspects according to the nature of work, for example in the chemical field consideration of hazards to health may predominate, whereas say in the transport field fitness to work may be a more important concern. Modern employment patterns demand consideration of new employment hazards such as occupational stress, or health concerns like sedentary work.
See also [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Case Studies in Environmental Medicine
- Society of Occupational Medicine UK
- American Board of Preventive Medicine USA
- American College of Preventive Medicine USA
- Occupational Health - MedlinePlus
- Journal of Occupational र Environmental Medicine
- American Association of Occupational Health Nurses