Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, र adolescents (from newborn to age 18-21). The word pediatrics is derived from two Greek words paidi (παιδί) which means "boy" र iatros (ιατρός) which means "doctor". Most pediatricians are members of a national body, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Paediatric Society, the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, the Royal College Of Paediatrics र Child Health, Norsk barnelegeforening (The Norwegian society of pediatricians) or the Indian Academy of Pediatrics.
Pediatrics differs from adult medicine in many respects. The obvious body size differences are paralleled by maturational changes. The smaller body of an infant or neonate is substantially different physiologically from that of an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance, immunology, oncology, र a host of other issues are unique to the realm of pediatrics. Increasingly effective health care also means that diseases such as sickle cell anemia र cystic fibrosis are more often treated by pediatricians, though many or most patients grow into adulthood. Issues revolving around infectious diseases र immunizations are also dealt with primarily by pediatricians.
Pediatrics is also a springboard for any specialty of general medicine, each with its own unique aspects. Pediatric cardiologists deal with heart conditions in children, particularly congenital heart defects, pediatric oncologists often treat leukemias र lymphomas. Every subspecialty of the adult doctor exists in the pediatric field (with the exception of geriatrics), but some are unique to pediatrics, such as adolescent medicine, sports medicine, र neonatology.
Childhood is the period of greatest growth, development र maturation of the various organ systems in the body. Years of training र experience (above र beyond basic medical training) goes into recognizing the difference between normal variants र what is actually pathological.
Another major difference between pediatrics र adult medicine is that children are minors and, in most jurisdictions, cannot make decisions for themselves. The issue of guardianship, legal responsibility र informed consent must always be considered in every pediatric procedure. In a sense, pediatricians often have to treat the parents र sometimes, the family, rather than just the child. Adolescents are in their own legal class, having rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances only, though this is in legal flux र varies by region.
In the U.S., pediatricians are considered to be primary care doctors, along with family practice, internal medicine, र obstetrics. Much of the rest of the world considers them specialists, र parents are only referred to pediatricians for special care not handled by the generalists.
Abraham Jacobi is considered the father of pediatrics.
Academic Training[सम्पादन गर्ने]
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The educational requirements for a pediatrician within the United States generally starts with graduating from a four year college. Then one goes to medical school for four more years. After completion of medical school, one does a residency in pediatrics for an additional three years. The pediatrician may then elect to pass a certification examination to be Board Certified in pediatrics. To specialize within pediatrics, in most cases one must complete an additional three year fellowship within their desired subspecialty. The pediatrician may then elect to pass another examination to be Board Certified in that pediatric subspeciality. Some certified paediatric subspecialities in the United States are pulmonology, cardiology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, nephrology, neonatology, adolescent medicine, critical care, र emergency medicine. Current exceptions to either the three year residency or three year fellowships include genetics, allergy & immunology र neurology. Other pediatric subspecialties such as pediatric radiology or pediatric anesthesiology are subspecialties of their respective primary specialties (such as radiology or anesthesiology).
See also[सम्पादन गर्ने]
- GeneralPediatrics.com - The General Pediatrician's View of the Internet
- Pediatric Radiology - the first international Pediatric Radiology platform for doctors र patients.
- PediatricEducation.org - A Pediatric Digital Library र Learning Collaboratory intended to serve as a source of continuing pediatric education
- Virtual Pediatric Hospital - A digital library of pediatric information
- American Academy of Pediatrics
- Pediatrics Official Journal of the AAP
- An On-Line Pediatric Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
-  - Summaries of articles published in Pediatrics in Review.
- Royal College of Paediatrics website - Homepage for the Royal College of Paediatrics र Child Health
- Born in Bradford - A UK-based birth cohort study
- Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Pediatric Environmental Health
- MedStudy Corporation - produces quality study/review materials to prepare physicians for Pediatrics Board certification र recertification exams.