भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्र

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्
यो लेख वा खण्ड नेपाली भाषामा नभएर अर्को भाषामा लेखिएको छ।
यदि यो लेखमा तपाईंको योगदान छ भने यसलाई नेपाली भाषामा उल्था गर्नुहोला।
एक महिनासम्म उल्थानभएमा यसलाई हटाएर नयाँ लेख बनाइने छ ।
en:The World Factbookका अनुसार विश्वका भुपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रहरू।

भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्र पूर्णरूपमा अथवा करिब-करिब वरिपरिबाट जमीनले घेरिएको राष्ट्र हो ।[१][२][३][४] हाल विश्वमा ४७ वटा भुपरिवेष्ठित देशहरू छन । नेपाल, भुटान, अष्ट्रिया केही उदाहरणहरू हुन । मुख्य भू-खण्डहरू मध्ये उत्तर अमेरिका र अष्ट्रेलिया महादेशमा एउटा पनि भुपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रहरू छैनन । यदि कुनै समुद्रको सवैतिर जमीनले घेरेर कुनै महासागरसँग पहुँच छैन भने त्यसलाई पनि भूपरिवेष्ठित भनिन्छ । उदाहरणका लागि क्यासपियन सागर

भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

राष्ट्र क्षेत्रफल (बर्ग कि.मि.) जनसंख्या
 Afghanistan 647,500 29,117,000
 Andorra 468 84,082
 Armenia 29,743 3,254,300
 Austria 83,871 8,396,760
 Azerbaijan [a] 86,600 8,997,400
 Belarus 207,600 9,484,300
 Bhutan 38,394 691,141
 Bolivia 1,098,581 10,907,778
 Botswana 582,000 1,990,876
 Burkina Faso 274,222 15,746,232
 Burundi 27,834 8,988,091
 Central African Republic 622,984 4,422,000
 Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208
 Czech Republic 78,867 10 674 947
 Ethiopia 1,104,300 85,237,338
 Hungary 93,028 10,005,000
 Kazakhstan[a][b] 2,724,900 16,372,000
 Kosovo[c] 10,908 1,804,838
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951 5,482,000
 Laos 236,800 6,320,000
 Lesotho[d] 30,355 2,067,000
 Liechtenstein 160 35,789
 Luxembourg 2,586 502,202
 Republic of Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550
 Malawi 118,484 15,028,757
 Mali 1,240,192 14,517,176
 Moldova 33,846 3,567,500
 Mongolia 1,564,100 2,736,800
 Nagorno-Karabakh[c] 11,458 138,000
 Nepal 147,181 29,331,000
 Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252
 Paraguay 406,752 6,349,000
 Rwanda 26,338 10,746,311
 San Marino[d] 61 31,716
 Serbia 88,361 7,306,677
 Slovakia 49,035 5,429,763
 South Ossetia[c] 3,900 72,000
 Swaziland 17,364 1,185,000
 Switzerland 41,284 7,785,600
 Tajikistan 143,100 7,349,145
 Transnistria[c] 4,163 537,000
 Turkmenistan[a] 488,100 5,110,000
 Uganda 241,038 32,369,558
 Uzbekistan[b] 447,400 27,606,007
 Vatican City[d] 0.44 826
 Zambia 752,612 12,935,000
 Zimbabwe 390,757 12,521,000
Total 16,963,624 470,639,181
Percentage of World 11.4% 6.9%
a  Has a coast on the saltwater Caspian Sea
b  Has a coast on the saltwater Aral Sea
c  Disputed region with limited international recognition
d  Completely landlocked by exactly one country

They can be grouped in contiguous groups as follows:

When South Sudan becomes independent the Central and Eastern African clusters as well as Ethiopia will be joined into one.

If it were not for the ४० km of coastline at Muanda, DR Congo would join all three African clusters into one, making them the biggest contiguous group in the world.

There are the following 'single' landlocked countries (each of them borders no other landlocked country):

If Transnistria is included then Moldova and Transnistria form their own cluster.

If the Caucasian countries are counted as part of Europe, then Europe has the most landlocked countries, at १९. Kazakhstan is also sometimes regarded as a transcontinental country, so if that is included, the count for Europe goes up to २०. If these countries are included in Asia, then Africa has the most, at १५. Depending on the status of the three transcontinental countries, Asia has between ९ and १४, while South America has only २. North America and Oceania are the only continents with no landlocked countries.

Doubly landlocked country[सम्पादन गर्ने]

A landlocked country surrounded only by other landlocked countries may be called a "doubly landlocked" country. A person in such a country has to cross at least two borders to reach a coastline.

There are currently two such countries in the world:

Uzbekistan has borders with Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan that border the landlocked but saltwater Caspian Sea, from which ships can reach the Sea of Azov by using the man-made Volga-Don Canal, and thence the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the oceans.

There were no doubly landlocked countries in the world from the Unification of Germany in १८७१ until the end of World War I. This is because Uzbekistan was part of the Russian Empire, and thus part of a country that was not landlocked; while Liechtenstein bordered Austria-Hungary, a country which had an Adriatic coast until it was dissolved in १९१८. Upon the dissolution of Austria-Hungary Liechtenstein became a doubly landlocked country. There were again no doubly landlocked countries from १९३८ until the end of World War II, as Nazi Germany had incorporated Austria, which meant that Liechtenstein bordered a country with a coast. After World War II Austria regained its independence and Liechtenstein became doubly landlocked once more. Upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan became the second doubly landlocked country.

Landlocked by a single country[सम्पादन गर्ने]

There are only three countries that are landlocked by a single country – that is they are surrounded on all sides by just one country. Such a country is also called an enclave.

The three countries are:

सन्दर्भहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]