|यो एउटा अनाथ (एक्लो) पृष्ठको रुपमा रहेको छ, यो पृष्ठ कुनै पनि पृष्ठसित जोडिएको छैन अथवा एक-दुईवटा लेखहरूसँग मात्र जोडिएको हुन सक्छ। कृपया सम्बन्धित लेखहरूलाई; यस पृष्ठसित लिङ्क जोड़्न सहायता गर्नुहोस् उपयोगी जानकारी यहाँ उपलब्ध हुनसक्छ। (जुन २०११)|
भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्र पूर्णरूपमा अथवा करिब-करिब वरिपरिबाट जमीनले घेरिएको राष्ट्र हो । हाल विश्वमा ४७ वटा भुपरिवेष्ठित देशहरू छन । नेपाल, भुटान, अष्ट्रिया केही उदाहरणहरू हुन । मुख्य भू-खण्डहरू मध्ये उत्तर अमेरिका र अष्ट्रेलिया महादेशमा एउटा पनि भुपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रहरू छैनन । यदि कुनै समुद्रको सवैतिर जमीनले घेरेर कुनै महासागरसँग पहुँच छैन भने त्यसलाई पनि भूपरिवेष्ठित भनिन्छ । उदाहरणका लागि क्यासपियन सागर ।
भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]
यसलाई नेपाली भाषामा गर्न आवश्यक छ। यसलाई नेपालीमा । नेपालीमा लेख्ने तरिका हेर्न यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस्।
|राष्ट्र||क्षेत्रफल (बर्ग कि.मि.)||जनसंख्या|
|Central African Republic||622,984||4,422,000|
|Czech Republic||78,867||10 674 947|
|Republic of Macedonia||25,713||2,114,550|
|Percentage of World||11.4%||6.9%|
- a Has a coast on the saltwater Caspian Sea
- b Has a coast on the saltwater Aral Sea
- c Disputed region with limited international recognition
- d Completely landlocked by exactly one country
They can be grouped in contiguous groups as follows:
- Central Asian cluster (6): Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
- European cluster (9): Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kosovo (partially recognized), Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia and Switzerland,
- Central African cluster (5): Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Mali, Niger
- South African cluster (4): Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe
- East African cluster (3): Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda
- Caucasian cluster (3): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh (unrecognized),
- South American cluster (2): Bolivia, Paraguay
When South Sudan becomes independent the Central and Eastern African clusters as well as Ethiopia will be joined into one.
There are the following 'single' landlocked countries (each of them borders no other landlocked country):
- Africa (3): Ethiopia, Lesotho, Swaziland
- Asia (4): Bhutan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal
- Europe (7): Andorra, Belarus, Luxembourg, Moldova, San Marino, and the State of the Vatican City
- Caucasus (1): South Ossetia (partially recognized)
If Transnistria is included then Moldova and Transnistria form their own cluster.
If the Caucasian countries are counted as part of Europe, then Europe has the most landlocked countries, at 19. Kazakhstan is also sometimes regarded as a transcontinental country, so if that is included, the count for Europe goes up to 20. If these countries are included in Asia, then Africa has the most, at 15. Depending on the status of the three transcontinental countries, Asia has between 9 and 14, while South America has only 2. North America and Oceania are the only continents with no landlocked countries.
Doubly landlocked country[सम्पादन गर्ने]
A landlocked country surrounded only by other landlocked countries may be called a "doubly landlocked" country. A person in such a country has to cross at least two borders to reach a coastline.
There are currently two such countries in the world:
- Liechtenstein in Central Europe surrounded by Switzerland and Austria.
- Uzbekistan in Central Asia surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Uzbekistan has borders with Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan that border the landlocked but saltwater Caspian Sea, from which ships can reach the Sea of Azov by using the man-made Volga-Don Canal, and thence the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the oceans.
There were no doubly landlocked countries in the world from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of World War I. This is because Uzbekistan was part of the Russian Empire, and thus part of a country that was not landlocked; while Liechtenstein bordered Austria-Hungary, a country which had an Adriatic coast until it was dissolved in 1918. Upon the dissolution of Austria-Hungary Liechtenstein became a doubly landlocked country. There were again no doubly landlocked countries from 1938 until the end of World War II, as Nazi Germany had incorporated Austria, which meant that Liechtenstein bordered a country with a coast. After World War II Austria regained its independence and Liechtenstein became doubly landlocked once more. Upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan became the second doubly landlocked country.
Landlocked by a single country[सम्पादन गर्ने]
There are only three countries that are landlocked by a single country – that is they are surrounded on all sides by just one country. Such a country is also called an enclave.
The three countries are:
- the republic of San Marino, an enclave in Italy
- the Vatican City, an enclave in the city of Rome, Italy
- the Kingdom of Lesotho, an enclave in South Africa