मिश्रको पिरामिड

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

मिश्रका पिरामिडहरू, जस मध्ये केही सैबै भन्दा ठूला मानव निर्मित संरचना कहल्लिएका छन, प्राचिन मिश्र सभ्यताका सबैभन्दा अटल एवम् बलिया प्रतिक हुन्।

सामान्यतया धेरैजसो पुरातत्वविदहरू के मान्छन् भने, यिनीहरूको निर्माण राजकिय, सौर्य र ज्योतिष चलनहरू सँग सम्बन्धित अन्त्येष्ठी (लाश गाढ्ने) स्मारकहरूको रूपमा गरिएको हो। र धेरैजसोको निर्माण पुरानोमध्य अधिराज्यको समयमा गरिएको हो।

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१९औ शताब्दिको एक तस्बिरमा गिजाको महान् पिरामिड

पिरामिडका प्रतिक[सम्पादन गर्ने]

मिश्रका पिरामिडहरूको आकारले घामबाट खसिरहेका किरणहरूलाई जनाउने विश्वाश गरिन्छ। धेरैजसोलाई अत्यन्त टल्किने सेतो चुनठुङ्गाले लेपिएको थियो जसका कारण टाढाबाट हेर्दा चम्किलो देखिन्थ्यो। अक्सर पिरामिडहरूको नामाकरण पनि सूर्यको चमकलाई जनाउनेगरी गरिन्थ्यो। उदाहरणको लागि: दशुरको ढल्केको पिरामिडको औपचारिक नाम दक्षिणको चम्किलो पिरामिड थियो, र अल-लहुनको सेन्वोस्रेतको नाम सेन्वोस्रेत चम्किरहेछ थियो।

ऐतिहासिक विकासक्रम[सम्पादन गर्ने]

By the time of the early Dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buriedमा visually unremarkable bench-like structures known as mastabas. The first historically documented pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, whoमा constructing a tomb for the pharaoh Djozer, first conceived the notion of stacking a number of mastabas on top of each other — thereby creating an edifice comprised of a number of steps that decreasedमा size towards its apex. The result was the Step Pyramid of Djozer — which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.

The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule, during the early part of the Old Kingdom. Over time, as the exercise of pharaonic authority became less centralised र more bureaucratised, the ability र willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale was reduced, र later pyramids were smaller, less well built र often hastily constructed.

Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurredमा what is present-day Sudan), after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata. Whilst Napatan rule was brief र ceasedमा 661 BC, the Egyptian influence had made an indelible impression, र during the later Sudanese Kingdom of Meroe (approximatelyमा the period between 300 BC–AD 300) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred uniquely indigenous, but strongly Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid tombs constructedमा the vicinity of the Meroitic capital city.

निर्माण प्रविधि[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The techniques used to construct Egypt's pyramids were initially developed by trial र error, र then further evolved based on local economic, resource र other considerations, over the thousand year pyramid-building phase of Egyptian civilization.

During the earliest period,मा the Third र Fourth Dynasties, pyramids were constructed wholly of stone. Granite (quarriedमा Aswan र transported downstream by barge) was usually the material of choice for the main body of these pyramids, while limestone was used as the outer casing. In early pyramids, the courses of stone forming the pyramid body were laid sloping inwards; however, this configuration was shown to be less stable than simply stacking horizontal courses on top of each other. The Bent Pyramid at Dashur represents the transition between these two building techniques; its lower section is built of sloping courses, whileमा its upper section the stones are laid horizontally.

During the Fifth Dynasty the physical scale of pyramids was much reduced, र poor quality limestone replaced granite as the chief building material. Infilling with loose rubble was also used for the first time. This enabled pyramids to be built with fewer resources over much shorter periods.

During the Middle Kingdom pyramid construction techniques changed again. Most pyramids built at this time were little more than mountains of mud brick encasedमा a veneer of polished limestone. In several cases, later pyramids were built on top of natural hills to further reduce the volume of material neededमा their construction.

Paradoxically, the materials र methods of construction usedमा the earliest pyramids have ensured their survivalमा a generally much better state of preservation than is the case with the pyramid monuments of later pharaohs.

पिरामिड क्षेत्रहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

हाल मिश्रमा बिभिन्न आकारका लगभग ९०वटा पिरामिडहरू संरक्षणका बिभिन्न अबस्थमा रहेका छन्। धेरैजसोलाई पिरामिड-मैदानहरूमा समुहगत गरिएको छ। त्यस मध्येका महत्वपूर्णहरू: (उत्तर देखि दक्षिण, स्थानको क्रममा)

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शीर्षक अक्षर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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शीर्षक अक्षर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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शीर्षक अक्षर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

शीर्षक अक्षर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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अबु रबास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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जेदेफ्रेको भत्केको पिरामिड

अबु रबास is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son र successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure — the third largest of the Giza pyramids. On this basis Djedefre's edifice would have claimed the title of the fourth or fifth largest pyramidमा Egypt.

Unfortunately its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone, र quarrying — which beganमा Roman times — continued until as recently as the early 20th century. Today little remains apart from a few courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core — although a small adjacent satellite pyramid isमा a better state of preservation.

गिजा[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The Giza pyramid field, viewed from the southwest. Dominating the picture from foreground to background are the Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre र Khufu.

गिजा, on the southern outskirts of Cairo is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" र the "Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), र the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, र the Sphinx.

Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, towards its apex. Interestingly this pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, र the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is,मा fact, smallerमा both height र volume.

The गिजा necropolis has arguably been the world's most popular tourist destination since antiquity, र was popularisedमा Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders stillमा existence.

जावेत एल-आर्यन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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खाबाको अधुरो पिरामिड

This site, half way between गिजा र अबु सर, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemket). Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of उनका step pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty metresमा height; had it been completed it is likely to have exceeded forty.

अबु सर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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The Pyramids of Niuserre र Neferirkare at अबु सर, viewed from the southeast

There are a total of seven pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signaling a decreaseमा royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, र are built of low quality local limestone.

The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), NferirkareSahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of Nferirkare — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some seventy metresमा height र then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filledमा with loose masonry.

सक्कारा[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The Step Pyramid of Djozer

Major pyramids at सक्कारा include the Step Pyramid of Djozer — the world's oldest monumental stone building — the Pyramid of Userkaf र the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway that is amongst the best-preservedमा Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities' earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of the sons of Ramses II. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djozer's successor Sekhemkhet. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djozer's.

दसुर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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The southern or "Bent" Pyramid of Sneferu at दसुर. Uniquely, this pyramid retains much of its original polished limestone casing.

दसुर is arguably the most important pyramid fieldमा Egypt वाहिर Giza र Saqqara, although until recently the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, र hence was virtually unknown वाहिर archaeological circles.

The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial — but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, र serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramidsमा their original state.

The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramidमा Egypt — after the pyramids of KhufuKhafre at Giza. Also at Dashur is the so-called Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III.

लिष्ठ[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The ruined Pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht

Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of Amenemhat I र उनका son, Senusret I (Sesostris I). The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The site which isमा the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between DashurMeidun, र about 100 kilometres south of कायरो, is believed to beमा the vicinity of the ancient city of Iti-tawi (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

मेइदुन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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Sneferu's Pyramid at Meidun; the central core structure remains, surrounded by a mountain of rubble from the collapsed outer casing

The pyramid at मेइदुन is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, र is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh's father र predecessor, Huni. Some archaelogists also suggest that the Meidun pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a "true" or smooth-sided pyramid.

The pyramid suffered a catastrophic collapseमा antiquity, र today only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a natural landscape feature — it isमा fact the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses र outer casing of the pyramid gave way.

It has been suggested that the collapse occurred while construction was underway on the Bent Pyramid at Dashur (also built by Sneferu), र that this may have been one of the reasons for the design changes implemented during construction of the latter edifice.

हवार्रा[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawarra, viewed from the east.

Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, र the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at दसुर. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.

In common with all Middle Kingdom pyramids it was built almost entirely of mud brick faced with limestone. Most of the stone was later pillaged for useमा other buildings — a fate common to almost all of Egypt's pyramids — र today the Hawarra pyramid is little more than an eroded vaguely pyramid-shaped mountain of mud brick.

The huge mortuary temple that originally stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the labyrinth mentioned by such ancient historians as Herodotus, StraboDiodorus Siculus, र which is said to have been the model for the labyrinth built by Daedalus for King Minos of Crete to house the Minotaur.

अल लहुन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

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The Pyramid of Senwosret II. The pyramid's natural limestone core is clearly visible as the yellow stratum at its base.

The pyramid of Senwosret II at Il Lahun is the southernmost pyramid structureमा Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount work necessary to construct it by ingeneously using as its foundation र core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.

यो पनि हेर्नुस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

बाहिर links[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  • Pyramids of Egypt – Comprehensive site by an Egyptian archaeology enthusiast that includes spectacular photographs of dozens of pyramids.
  • Ancient Authors – A site that quotes descriptions of the "Labyrinth" of Amenemhet III's pyramid at Il Lahun by various ancient authors.
  • Pyramids of Nubia – A site detailing the major pyramid sites of ancient Nubia (Sudan).