मृगौलाशास्त्र

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्


Nephrology is the branch of internal medicine dealing with the study of the function र diseases of the kidney. The word nephrology is derived from the Greek word nephros, which means "kidney", र the suffix -ology, or "study of".

Scope of the specialty[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Most diseases affecting the kidney are not limited to the organ itself, but are systemic disorders. Nephrology concerns itself with the diagnosis of kidney disease र its treatment (medication, dialysis), र follow-up of renal transplant patients. Additionally, most nephrologists consider themselves to be expert in the care of electrolyte disordershypertension. Given that most renal conditions are chronic, nephrologists "grow with their patients".

Who sees a nephrologist?[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Patients are referred to nephrology specialists for various different reasons, such as :

Urologists are surgical specialists of the urinary tract. They are involved in renal diseases that might be amenable to surgery:

  • Diseases of the Bladderprostate such as malignancy, stones, or obstruction of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis[सम्पादन गर्ने]

As with the rest of medicine, important clues as to the cause of any symptom are gained in the history र physical examination.

Laboratory tests are almost always aimed at: urea, creatinine, electrolytes, र urinalysis-- which is frequently the key test in suggesting a diagnosis.

More specialized tests can be ordered to discover or link certain systemic diseases to kidney failure such as hepatitis b or hepatitis c, lupus serologies, paraproteinemias such as amyloidosis or multiple myeloma or various other systemic diseases that lead to kidney failure. Collection of a २४-hour sample of urine can give valuable information on the filtering capacity of the kidney र the amount of protein loss in some forms of kidney disease. However, २४-hour urine samples have recently, in the setting of chronic renal disease, been replaced by spot urine ratio of protein र creatinine.

Other tests often performed by nephrologists are:

Therapy[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Many kidney diseases are treated with medication, such as steroids, DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), antihypertensives (many kidney diseases feature hypertension). Often erythropoietinvitamin D treatment is required to replace these two hormones, the production of which stagnates in chronic renal disease.

When symptoms of renal failure become too severe, dialysis might be required. Please refer to dialysis for a comprehensive account of this treatment.

If patients proceed to renal transplant, nephrologist often monitor the immunosuppressive regimen र the infections that can occur at this stage.

External links[सम्पादन गर्ने]


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