Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia meaning "hand work") is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual र instrumental treatment. Surgeons may be physicians, dentists, or veterinarians who specialize in surgery.
History [सम्पादन गर्ने]
In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappan periods (c. 3300 BC), had knowledge of medicine र dentistry. The physical anthropologist that carried out the examinations, Professor Andrea Cucina from the University of Missouri-Columbia, made the discovery when he was cleaning the teeth from one of the men (see History of medicine). Later research in the same area found evidence of teeth having been drilled, dating back 9,000 years. 
Researchers have uncovered an Ancient Egyptian mandible, dated to approximately 2750 BC, with two perforations just below the root of the first molar, indicating the draining of an abscessed tooth. Recent excavations of the construction workers of the Egyptian pyramids also led to the discovery of evidence of brain surgery on a labourer, who continued living for two years afterwards.
Indian physician Sushruta (c. 600 BC) is an important figure in the history of surgery. He lived, taught र practiced उनका art of surgery on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Benares in Northern India. Because of उनका seminal र numerous contributions to the science र art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery". Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita. It is the oldest known surgical text र it describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, र prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures on performing plastic surgery.
Surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the profession of surgeon र that of physician have different historical roots र surgeons have now even subspecialised as have physicians. For example, Greek tradition was against opening the body र the Hippocratic Oath warns physicians against the practice of surgery, specifically that cutting persons laboring under the stone, i.e. lithotomy, an operation to relieve kidney stones, was to be left to such persons as practice [it]. Of course, most knowledge of surgery comes from dissecting bodies, a science which was repulsive to many healers.
By the thirteenth century, many European towns were demanding that physicians have several years of study or training before they could practice. Montpellier, Padua र Bologna Universities were particularly interested in the academic side to Surgery, र by the fifteenth century at the latest, Surgery was a separate university subject to Physic. Surgery had a lower status than pure medicine, beginning as a craft tradition until Rogerius Salernitanus composed उनका Chirurgia, which laid the foundation for the species of the occidental surgical manuals, influencing them up to modern times.
Among the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars who were primarily concerned with amputation. Naval surgeons were often barber-surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers.
In London, an operating theatre or operating room from the day before modern anaesthesia or antiseptic surgery still exists, र is open to the public. It is found in the roof space of St Thomas Church, Southwark, London र is called the Old Operating Theatre.
Development of modern surgery [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Before the advent of anesthesia, surgery was a traumatically painful procedure र surgeons were encouraged to be as swift as possible to minimize patient suffering. This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations र external growth removals. In addition, the need for strict hygiene during procedures was little understood, which often resulted in life threatening post-operative infections in patients.
Beginning in the 1840s, surgery began to change dramatically in character with the discovery of effective र practical anaesthetic chemicals such as ether र chloroform. In addition to relieving patient suffering, anaesthesia allowed more intricate operations in the internal regions of the human body. In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications.
However, the move to longer operations increased the danger of dangerous complications since the prolonged exposure of surgical wounds to the open air heightened the chance of infections. It was only in the late 19th century with the rise of microbiology with scientists like Louis Pasteur र innovative doctors who applied their findings like Joseph Lister did the idea of strict cleanliness र sterile settings during surgery arise. In the United Kingdom, Australia र New Zealand surgeons are distinguished from physicians by being referred to as "Mister." This tradition has its origins in the 18th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons र did not have a degree (or indeed any formal qualification), unlike physicians, who were doctors with a university medical degree.
By the beginning of the 19th century, surgeons had obtained high status, र in 1800, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership. The title Mister became a badge of honour, र today only surgeons who hold the Membership or Fellowship of one of the Royal Surgical Colleges are entitled to call themselves Mister, Miss, Mrs or Ms.
In contrast, North American physicians र surgeons are always addressed as "Doctor."
Diseases that can be treated by surgery [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Anatomical Abnormalities
- Disorders of function
- Ischaemia र infarction
- Metabolic disorders
- Other abnormalities of tissue growth, e.g. cysts, hyperplasia or hypertrophy
Common surgical procedures [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Of the eight most common surgical procedures in the US, four are obstetric:
According to 1996 data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, 40.3 million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 1996, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries.
Noted surgeons [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- For a more complete list, see List of surgeons.
- William Stewart Halsted (initiated surgical residency training in U.S., first too-many-things-to-list)
- Alfred Blalock (first modern day successful open heart surgery in 1944)
- C. Walton Lillehei (labeled "Father of modern day open heart surgery")
- Christiaan Barnard (cardiac surgery, first heart transplantation)
- Walter Freeman (lobotomy)
- Sir Victor Horsley (neurosurgery)
- Lars Leksell (neurosurgery, inventor of radiosurgery)
- Joseph Lister (discoverer of surgical sepsis, Listerine named in उनका honour)
- Harvey Cushing (pioneer of brain surgery)
Surgeries [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- List of surgical procedures
- Abdominal surgery
- Cardiothoracic surgery
- Dental surgery
- Ophthalmic Surgery
- Orthopedic surgery
- General surgery
- Laparoscopic surgery
- Oral र Maxillofacial Surgery
- Plastic surgery
- Remote surgery
- Sexual reassignment surgery
- Vascular surgery
See also [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Comparison of shoulder scars for open verses arthroscopic surgeries
- The portrayal of surgery by various artists
- A Manual of Military Surgery, by Samuel D. Gross, MD (1861). The manual used by doctors in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
- An On-Line Surgery Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
- American Surgical Association
- Unmanned robot surgeon