संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
United States of America
Estados Unidos de América
|राष्ट्र वाणी: हामी प्रभुमा विश्वास गर्छौं
अंग्रेजी: In God We Trust (आधिकारिक)
E Pluribus Unum (परम्परागत)
(ल्याटिन: धेरैमध्येको, एउटा)
|राष्ट्रगान: "द स्टार–स्प्याङ्गल्ड ब्यानर"
|राष्ट्र भाषा||संघीय स्तरमा कुनै पनि छैन[a]|
|National language||अंग्रेजी (de facto)[b]|
|सरकार||संघीय राष्ट्रपतीय प्रणालीसहितको संवैधानिक गणतन्त्र|
|-||राष्ट्रपति||बाराक ओबामा (डे)|
|-||उपराष्ट्रपति||जो बिडेन (डे)|
|-||सभामुख||जोन बोयनर (रि)|
|-||प्रधान न्यायाधीश||जोन रबर्टस्|
|-||Lower House||प्रतिनिधि सभा|
|-||घोषणा मिति||सन् १७७६ जुलाई ४|
|-||मान्यता पाएको मिति||सन् १७८३ सेप्टेम्बर ३|
|-||वर्तमान संविधान||सन् १७८८ जुन २१|
|ईन्टरनेट टिडिएल||.us .gov .mil .edu|
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, (सामान्यत: अमेरिका, यु.एस्.ए. वा यु.एस्.) संवैधानिक संघीय गणतन्त्रमा आधारित उत्तर अमेरिका महादेशमा रहेको विश्वको चौथो ठूलो राष्ट्र हो। पचास संवैधानिक राज्यमा बाँडिएको अमेरिकाको राजधानी वाशिङ्टन् डि. सि. हो। यहाँका अठ्चालीस राज्य प्रशान्त र एट्लान्टिक महासागरहरूको बीचमा मध्य उत्तर अमेरिकामा पर्दछन् जसको उत्तरमा क्यानडा र दक्षिणमा मेक्सिको छ। बाँकी दुई मध्ये अलास्का सोहि महादेशको उत्तरपश्चिममा पर्दछ जसको पूर्वमा क्यानडा र पश्चिममा रुस रहेको छ। त्यसैगरी हवाइ राज्य भने मध्य प्रशान्त महासागरमा अवस्थित द्धीपमा पर्दछ। ९८ लाख वर्ग कि. मि.मा फैलिएको र करीब ३१ करोड जनसङ्ख्या भएको, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, विश्वका बहुसांस्कृतिक देशहरूमध्ये एक हो।
- १ सरकार
- २ इतिहास
- ३ राजनीति
- ४ भूमी
- ५ भुगोल
- ६ अर्थतन्त्र
- ७ जनसंख्या स्थीती
- ८ संस्कृति
- ९ प्रकाशन स्वतन्त्रता
- १० सन्दर्भ सामाग्री
- ११ बाह्य सेतु
संघीय सरकार is set up by the Constitution. There are three branches of government. They are the executive branch, the legislative branch, र the judicial branch. State governments work very much like the federal government.
कार्यकारीणी विभाग[सम्पादन गर्ने]
The executive branch is the part of the सरकार that enforces the law. Members of the U.S. Electoral College elect a President who is the leader of the executive branch, as well as the leader of the Armed Forces. The President decides whether or not the bills that the Legislative branch passes will become laws. He may also make "executive orders" to make sure people follow the law. Two famous executive orders were when Abraham Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation, र when Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered 1,200 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division to allow the Little Rock Nine into school. The President is in charge of many departments that control all of the different parts of the government. For example, Department of Commerce makes rules about trade र business. The President chooses heads of departments, र judges at the federal (nation-wide) level. However, the Senate, part of the legislative branch, must agree with all of the people he chooses. The President may serve two 4-year terms, or up to 10 years if he takes over in the middle of another President's term.
व्यवस्थापिकिय विभाग[सम्पादन गर्ने]
The legislative branch is the part of the सरकार that makes laws. The legislative branch is made up of Congress. Congress is divided into two "houses".
One house is the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives is made up of Representatives, who are each elected by voters from their own state. The number of Representatives a state has is based on how many people live there: the more people a state has, the more representatives it gets. Representatives serve 2-year terms. The total number of representatives today is kept at 435.
The other house is the Senate. In the Senate, each state is represented equally, by two Senators. Before the President makes treaties or appoints officials, the Senate must approve them. Senators serve 6-year terms.
Representatives र Senators suggest laws in Congress, then vote on them. These are called "bills". If one house agrees to a bill, it gets sent to the other; if both houses vote for it, it is then sent to the President, to agree to it or not.
न्यायिक विभाग[सम्पादन गर्ने]
The judicial branch is the part of सरकार that interprets what the law means. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court र many lower courts. If the Supreme Court decides that a law is not allowed by the Constitution, then it is not a law anymore. The Supreme Court is made up of 9 judges, called Justices. The head of the Supreme Court is called the Chief Justice. A Supreme Court Justice serves until he or she either dies, or retires. When that happens, the President chooses someone to be a new Justice, to replace the one who left. If the Senate agrees with that choice, the person becomes a Justice. If the Senate does not agree with the President's choice, then the President has to nominate someone else.
The place now called "the United States" has been lived in since prehistoric times by Native American tribes. In about 1607, the British founded colonies in the eastern part of today's United States of America. The Europeans brought diseases, like smallpox, that killed many Native Americans because the natives had never been exposed to these diseases before, while the Europeans had been used to them for a very long time. Also, the colonists wanted the land the natives lived on for thousands of years. They killed most of the Native Americans that were left, or forced them to leave most of the land where they lived, though in a very few cases, they did buy land from them.
After a while, the colonists who settled in the British colonies did not like being ruled from Britain. By 1775, the colonists had decided to fight the British soldiers who were sent to control them, र on July 4, 1776, people from 13 colonies signed the United States Declaration of Independence. This said from that point on, they were free र independent states. Britain tried to recapture the colonies in the American War of Independence, but they failed.
During the American Revolution र right after it, the United States was much more loosely organized than it is today. Each state had more power than the United States as a whole. In other words, the सरकार was not centralized. That सरकार structure was set in 1781. The paper outlining that सरकार is called the Articles of Confederation.
After a time, the United States wanted a stronger government. So in 1789, a constitution was written. The Constitution is a document that says how the सरकार works. Very soon after, the Bill of Rights was added. This was a set of 10 changes, or amendments, that limited the government's power र guaranteed rights to the citizens. The US Constitution has been changed र added to many times since then. The main idea is that the सरकार is a representative democracy elected by the people, who all have the same rights. However, this was not true at first, when only white males who owned property could vote. This was only changed after the American Civil War, by the 13th, 14th, 15th, र 19th amendments.
The Civil War lasted from 1861 until 1865. Several states in the southern part of the United States wanted to break away र start a different country. They disagreed with the other states about policies like slavery in the new territories, र how much power the states should have to make their own laws. The national सरकार (which was made up of the states that remained, all of which were in the northern part of the United States) won the war. Because of the war, slavery ended in the United States.
After the Civil War, there were more problems in the west between the white settlers र the native Indians as more people began to move west. Because of this, many more Indians were killed.
सन १९०० पछि[सम्पादन गर्ने]
In the 20th century, the US had more contact with other countries. In 1917, the US got involved in World War I र helped quickly defeat Germany र its allies. After World War I, the United States was the world's second richest र most powerful country.
The Great Depression happened in the early 1930s, when a lot of people could not find a job. There were a lot of reasons for the Great Depression, but one of the main things that made it come as quickly as it did was the stock market crash of 1929, in which a lot of people lost a lot of money in a very short amount of time. Some people lost all their money in only a few days, since the stocks they had bought in the years leading up to it, were now worth almost nothing.
Later, the US was involved in World War II, र was र important part of several other wars र military activities, including:
- The Korean War
- The Vietnam War
- Secret bombings of Civilians in Cambodia (1968-1970)
- The Cold War
- The Somali Civil War
- The 1993-1995 Haitian Conflict (Operation Uphold Democracy)
- The assasination of an Al-Quaeda Leader in Yemen (2002)
- Troops sent to Georgia र Djibouti in 2003 to "help stop terrorism.
The United States has also invaded, intervened in, or occupied Latin American countries more than a hundred times since the United States became independent, the most notable invasion being the Mexican-American War.
On September 11, 2001, the United States was struck by a major terrorist attack. About 3,000 people died. Terrorists took control of four airplanes, in what is called a hijacking. They crashed all four of the planes on purpose.
Two of the planes crashed into the World Trade Center, a pair of skyscrapers in New York City. One plane crashed into the Pentagon, the main office for the U.S. military, in Virginia. The fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania after the passengers fought back.
Most of the hijackers were from Saudi Arabia र thought the US army had no business being in Saudi Arabia, because they thought it was holy ground where only Muslims should be. A group called Al Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, admitted they were behind these attacks, र they were based in Afghanistan, where they were supported by the Taliban Afghan government.
The attack led to big changes. The United States सरकार responded by going to war against Afghanistan र driving out the Taliban. After that, it went to war against Iraq. The Iraq war was against the will of the majority of the world, because the Iraqi सरकार was never involved with Afghanistan. The war caused massive demonstrations all over the world.
The United States of America consists of 50 states with 'limited autonomy.' This means that states can make laws about things inside the state, but if the national सरकार makes laws that say different things, the law the state made is not a law any more, र people only have to follow the national law. Each state has a constitution of its own, different from the federal (national) Constitution. Each one of these is like the federal Constitution, but they only talk about how each state's सरकार is set up.
The federal र state सरकार is dominated today by two groups of politicians (called political parties): the Republicans (who are usually more conservative) र the Democrats (who are usually more liberal), although other people can sometimes be elected too. These two parties get support from different people र businesses, who give money to the parties. This means that elections can cost a lot of money. In return, parties will sometimes pass laws that help the people who gave them money. This is a problem in American politics.
Right now, the President is Republican, but in the mid-term election, the Democrat's took control of Congress, which means that neither party has enough votes to decide what direction the country's policies will go.
The USA's large cultural, economic, र military influence has made foreign relations, or relations with other countries, an especially important topic in American politics, र the politics of many other countries.
The United States has grown from 13 states in 1776, to 50 states र other land today. The states are like what are sometimes called provinces for some countries.
The country grew from east to west. It conquered र bought lands. It also divided some states into two.
The states are also divided into smaller counties. Two states use different words other than "county". Louisiana uses the word "parish". Alaska uses the word "borough".
The United States also holds several other lands not in a state. Some examples are:
The United States is the third biggest country in the world. Its geography varies a lot.
- There are meadows on the East Coast,
- The Appalachian Mountains
- The Great Plains in the middle of the country,
- The Mississippi-Missouri river,
- The Rocky Mountains west of the plains
- Deserts र coastal areas west of the Rocky Mountains
- Rainforests in the Pacific Northwest
- Arctic regions of Alaska
- Volcanic islands in Hawaii
The climate varies along with the geography, from tropical (hot र wet in summer, warm र dry in winter) in Florida to tundra (cold all year) in Alaska. Large parts of the country have warm summers र cold winters. Some parts of the United States, like parts of California, have a Mediterranean climate.
The United States has a capitalist economy. The country has steady economic growth, low unemployment र inflation, र a large trade deficit (meaning the United States buys more things from other countries than it sells).
The American economy is one of the most important in the world. Several countries have coupled their currency with the dollar, meaning that their currency becomes more or less valuable exactly the same way the American dollar does. Some other countries even use the American dollar as their currency. The American stock markets are seen as an indicator of world economy.
The country has rich mineral resources, with many gold, oil, coal र uranium deposits. Farming makes the country among the top producers of, among others, corn (maize), wheat, sugar र tobacco. American produces cars, airplanes र electronics. About 3/4 of Americans work in the service industry.
Some of the country's biggest trading partners are:
- European countries
- industrialized Asian nations such as Japan, Taiwan, India, South Korea र China
जनसंख्या स्थीती[सम्पादन गर्ने]
In recent years, many Hispanics have come from Mexico र other parts of Latin America, especially to the U.S. Southwest. Many of these people cross the border illegally. Some Americans are unhappy about that, र are also unhappy about having more use of the Spanish language in the United States (see Languages in the United States).
A third large minority is Asian-American. Many of them are on the West Coast.
The social structure of the United States has a big range, meaning some Americans are much, much richer than others. Still, most Americans are much richer than the majority of the world. For example, 51% of all households have access to a computer र 41% had access to the Internet in 2000, a figure which had grown to 75% in 2004. Furthermore, 67.9% of Americans owned their homes in 2002. The average income for an American was $37,000 a year in 2002.
This very different from when the country was younger र considered culturally primitive.
संघिय बिदाहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]
|जनवरी १||New Year's Day||Celebrates the beginning of the year.|
|जनवरी, तेस्रो मंगलवार||Martin Luther King, Jr. Day||Honors Dr. King, a civil rights leader.|
|फेब्रुअरी, तेस्रो मंगलवार||Washington's Birthday||Honors the first American President, George Washington. More often, this holiday is called Presidents Day र honors all of the American Presidents.|
|मे, अन्तिम सोमवार||Memorial Day||Honors military men र women who died in service, र marks the traditional start of summer.|
|जुलाई ४||Independence Day||Celebrates the Declaration of Independence; usually called "The Fourth of July".|
|सेप्टेम्वर, पहिलो सोमवार||Labor Day||Celebrates the achievements of workers, र marks the traditional end of summer.|
|अक्टोवर, दोस्रो सोमवार||Columbus Day||Honors Christopher Columbus, the traditional discoverer of the Americas.|
|नोभेम्वर ११||Veterans Day||Honors all military men र women. The day usually includes a moment of silence at 11 a.m.|
|नोभेम्वर, चौथो बिहिवार||Thanksgiving||Gives thanks for the autumn harvest, र marks the traditional beginning of the "holiday season".|
|डिसेम्वर २५||Christmas||For Christians, marks the birth of Jesus Christ. Many people, both Christians र people who are not Christians, celebrate Christmas as a winter holiday of peace, friendship, र gift-giving.|
प्रकाशन स्वतन्त्रता[सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Reporters without borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2003: Ranks 31 out of 166 countries (2-way tie) (2002 - 17 out of 139 countries)
सन्दर्भ सामाग्री[सम्पादन गर्ने]
बाह्य सेतु[सम्पादन गर्ने]
|विकिमिडिया कमन्समा अरु धेरै सामग्रीहरू छन्: United States|
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिकाको सरकार[सम्पादन गर्ने]
- Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites
- The White House - Official site of the Presidential residence
- Senate.gov - Official site of the United States Senate
- House.gov - Official site of the United States House of Representatives
- SCOTUS - Official site of the Supreme Court of the United States
- Portrait of the USA - Published by the United States Information Agency, September 1997.
- US Census Housing र Economic Statistics Updated regularly by US Bureau of the Census.
- STOPUSA - An organisation that is against the US
- National Motto: History र Constitutionality
- Historical Documents
- Reference: US specific web resources sorted by state
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