इन्डो-ईरानी गण

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
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Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture (orange) during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (chartreuse green) in the south. The location of the earliest chariots is shown in magenta.

इन्डो-ईरानीयन गण, वा इन्डो-ईरानीक गण[१] र काहिले काहीं आर्य वा आर्यन (स्वघोषित नाम), एक भाषिक-जातिय समुह थियो जसले भारोपेली भाषा परिवार को ठूलो शाखा इन्डो-ईरानीयन भाषाहरू यूरेसियामा ल्याएका थिए ।

नामाङ्करण[सम्पादन गर्ने]

आर्यन शब्दको अर्थ इन्डो-ईरानीयन हो किनकि आर्य इन्डो-ईरानीयन भाषाहरू बोल्ने प्राचीन जातिको एक स्वघोषित नाम हो, विशेषतः ईरानीइन्डो-आर्य गणहरूलाई सामुहिक रूपमा इन्डो-ईरानी भनिन्छ ।[२][३] यस जातिय समुहलाई जनाउन केही विद्वानहरू इन्डो-ईरानीयन शब्द को प्रयोग गर्दछन् भने केही "आर्यन" शब्द को प्रयोग गर्दछन् ।[४][५][६][७]

भाषा[सम्पादन गर्ने]

इन्डो-ईरानी भाषाहरू

सन्दर्भ[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. Naseer Dashti (८ अक्टोबर २०१२), The Baloch and Balochistan: A historical account from the Beginning to the fall of the Baloch State, Trafford Publishing, आइएसबिएन 978-1-4669-5897-5 
  2. The "Aryan" Language, Gherardo Gnoli, Instituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, Roma, 2002.
  3. . Schmitt, "Aryans" in Encyclopedia Iranica: Excerpt:"The name “Aryan” (OInd. ā́rya-, Ir. *arya- [with short a-], in Old Pers. ariya-, Av. airiia-, etc.) is the self designation of the peoples of Ancient India and Ancient Iran who spoke Aryan languages, in contrast to the “non-Aryan” peoples of those “Aryan” countries (cf. OInd. an-ā́rya-, Av. an-airiia-, etc.), and lives on in ethnic names like Alan (Lat. Alani, NPers. īrān, Oss. Ir and Iron.". Also accessed online: [१] in May, 2010
  4. Wiesehofer, Joseph: Ancient Persia. New York: 1996. I.B. Tauris. Recommends the use by scholars of the term Aryan to describe the Eastern, not the Western, branch of the Indo-European peoples (see "Aryan" in index)
  5. Durant, Will: Our Oriental Heritage. New York: 1954. Simon and Schuster. According to Will Durant on Page 286: “the name Aryan first appears in the [name] Harri, one of the tribes of the Mitanni. In general it was the self-given appellation of the tribes living near or coming from the [southern] shores of the Caspian sea. The term is properly applied today chiefly to the Mitannians, Hittites, Medes, Persians, and Vedic Hindus, i.e., only to the eastern branch of the Indo-European peoples, whose western branch populated Europe.”
  6. Häkkinen, Jaakko (२०१२), "Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir" (PDF), in Tiina Hyytiäinen; Lotta Jalava; Janne Saarikivi et al., Per Urales ad Orientem (Festschrift for Juha Janhunen on the occasion of his 60th birthday on 12 February 2012), Helsinki: Finno-Ugric Society, आइएसबिएन 978-952-5667-34-9, अन्तिम पहुँच १२ नोभेम्बर २०१३ 
  7. Häkkinen, Jaakko (२३ सेप्टेम्बर २०१२), "Problems in the method and interpretations of the computational phylogenetics based on linguistic data – An example of wishful thinking: Bouckaert et al. 2012" (PDF), Jaakko Häkkisen puolikuiva alkuperäsivusto, Jaakko Häkkinen, अन्तिम पहुँच १२ नोभेम्बर २०१३