खुला तथ्याङ्क

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

खुला तथ्याङ्क (Open data) खुला स्रोतको तथ्याङ्क हो जसमा कुनै पनि प्रतिलिपी अधिकार, प्याटेन्ट या अन्य कुनै प्रकारको नियन्त्रण हुँदैन। खुला तथ्याङ्क प्रणालीमा आँकडाहरूलाई सबैको पहुँचमा सुलभ हुनेगरी राखिन्छ। यसको सिद्धान्त पनि खुला स्रोत एवं 'ओपेन ऐक्सेस' आदि अन्य 'स्वतन्त्र' आन्दोलन समान छन्।

कुनैपनि तथ्याङ्कलाई विनासर्त प्रयोग गर्नपाउने, त्यसलाई आवश्यकता अनुरूप परिमार्जन गर्नपाउने, त्यसलाई अरुमा वाड्नमिल्ने अधिकार सुनिश्चित हुन्छ भने, त्यसलाई खुला तथ्याङ्क तथा खुला डाटा भनिन्छ । ज्ञान संसारकै सबै भन्दा शक्तिशाली तत्व हो र त्यो कोहि एकको पहुच र अधिकारभित्र राख्नु भन्दा सबैको पहुचमा हुदा त्यसको प्रयोग र संभावना बढ्छ भन्ने मान्यताले खुला तथ्याङ्कको अवधारणा अघि बढेको हो । यो कुरा नया भने होइन, मात्र यसको संस्थागत परिभाषा नया हो । खुला तथ्याङ्क विशेषगरी सरकारी तथ्याङ्क, नक्सा, भुमि, अर्थतन्त्र, लगायतका तथ्याङ्कहरू हुने गर्दछ ।

खुला तथ्याङ्कको निम्ति यी कुराहरू हुनुपर्छ :

उपलब्धता र पहुँच

खुला तथ्याङ्कहरू सुविधायुक्त एवं परिमार्जन गर्न मिल्ने बनावटमा सजिलै इन्टरनेट बाट डाउनलोड गर्नमिल्ने हुनुपर्छ । यसको न्युनतम मूल्य राखेर बेच्न पनि सकिन्छ ।

पुनप्रयोग र पुनवितरण

यी डाटाहरू पुनप्रयोग र परिमार्जन गर्नसकिन्छ । अन्तत यी डाटाहरू अन्य डाटाहरू मिलाएर पनि वितरण गर्न सकिन्छ ।

विश्वव्यापी सहभागिता

प्रत्यक व्यक्तिको प्रयोग गर्ने, परिमार्जन गर्ने र त्यसलाई वितरण गर्ने बराबर अधिकार हुन्छ ।

तथ्याङ्क किन खुला गर्ने :

पारदर्शिता

कुनै पनि प्रजातान्त्रिक मुलुकमा जनताको पैसा र सहयोगबाट संचालित त्यसदेशको सरकार, राजनीतिक पार्टी, संघसंस्थाहरूको अवस्थाको बारेमा बुझ्न पाउनु जनताको अधिकार हुन्छ, त्यसैले सरकार, राजनीतिक पार्टी, संघसंस्थाहरूले आफ्नो हरेक तथ्याङ्क सजिलै उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्दछ तर उक्त तथ्याङ्क सबैले बुझ्न नसक्ने हुनसक्छ, तसर्थ उक्त खुला तथ्याङ्क अरु कसैले प्रयोग गरी सबैले बुझ्नसक्ने चित्रमा रूपान्तरण गर्न सक्छ |

सामाजिक र व्यवसायिक मूल्य

हामीलाई थाहा छ, सामाजिक एवं व्यवसायिक विकासको निम्ति डाटा/तथ्याङ्क भनेको सबैभन्दा ठुलो स्रोत हो । सरकारसंग यातायात देखि आर्थिक सम्मको सबै तथ्याङ्क हुनेगर्दछ, र यस्तो खाले तथ्याङ्कहरू खुला हुदा अरु नया सृजनसिल सामाजिक एवं व्यवसायिक संभावना बद्छ ।

सहभागिता

धेरै जस्तो जनताहरू सरकारको पहुचमा हुने भनेको चुनाबमा मात्र हुन्छ, तर तथ्याङ्क खुला हुदा जनताको सिधा सहभागिता सरकारको निर्णयगर्ने कुरा सम्ममा हुनसक्छ | यसबाट जनताको भुमिका हेर्ने बाट गर्नेमा पुग्छ |

विज्ञानमा खुला तथ्याङ्कको उदाहरण

सरकारी क्षेत्रमा खुला तथ्याङ्क[सम्पादन गर्ने]


Several national governments have created web sites to distribute a portion of the data they collect. It is a concept for a collaborative project in municipal Government to create and organize Culture for Open Data or Open government data. A list of over 200 local, regional and national open data catalogues is available on the open source datacatalogs.org project, which aims to be a comprehensive list of data catalogues from around the world. Prominent examples include:

  • Data.gov - U.S. government open-data website. Launched in May 2009.
  • Data.gov.uk - U.K. government open-data website. Launched in September 2009.
  • data.govt.nz - New Zealand Government initiative to publish Government Data under Creative Commons licences, defined further at NZ GOAL. launched in Nov 2009.
  • data.norge.no - Norwegian government open-data website. Launched in April 2010.
  • geodata.gov.gr - Greece's open government geospatial data Launched 21st of July 2010, as a state initiative.[१]
  • opengovdata.ru - OpenGovData Russia Catalog. Launched in 2010, private initiative.[२]
  • Data.gov.au - Australian government open-data website. Launched in March 2011.
  • Data.gov.ma - Moroccan government open-data website. Launched in April 2011.
  • Data.gc.ca - Canadian government open-data website. Launched in March 2011.
  • data.belgium.be - Belgian government open-data website. Still in beta, but usable.
  • opendata.go.ke - Kenyan government open-data website. Launched in Jul 2011.
  • data.overheid.nl - Dutch government open-data website. Launched in Oct 2011.
  • [२] - Rotterdam municipal open-data website, Launched in Aug 2012.
  • datos.gob.cl - Chilean government open-data website. Launched in Sept 2011.
  • data.gov.it - Italian government open-data website. Launched in October 2011.[३]
  • datos.gob.es - Spanish government open-data website. Launched in October 2011.
  • datos.gub.uy - Uruguayan government open-data website. Launched in November 2011.
  • data.gouv.fr - French government open-data website. Launched in December 2011.
  • dados.gov.br (beta) - Brazilian government open-data website. Beta launched in December 2011; full site scheduled for April 2012.[४]
  • www.opendata.ee - Estonian government open-data website.
  • dados.gov.pt - Portuguese government open-data website.
  • date.gov.md - Moldavian government open-data website.
  • data.gov.in - India Government open-data website. Launched in 2012.
  • data.gv.at - Austrian Government open-data website.
  • open-data.europa.eu - European Commission Data Portal.

Additionally, other levels of government have established open data websites. There are many government entities pursuing Open Data in Canada. Data.gov lists the sites of a total of 31 U.S. states, 13 cities, and > 150 agencies and subagencies providing open data; e.g. the state of California, USA [३].

The United Nations has an open data website that publishes statistical data from Member States and UN Agencies: [४].

खुला तथ्याङ्कको समर्थन र विरोध[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The debate on Open Data is still evolving. The best open government applications seek to empower consumers, to help small businesses, or to create value in some other positive, constructive way. Open government data is only a way-point on the road to improving education, improving government, and building tools to solve other real world problems. While many arguments have been made categorically, the following discussion of arguments for and against open data highlights that these arguments often depend highly on the type of data and its potential uses.

Arguments made on behalf of Open Data include the following:

  • "Data belong to the human race". Typical examples are genomes, data on organisms, medical science, environmental data.[५]
  • Public money was used to fund the work and so it should be universally available.[६]
  • It was created by or at a government institution (this is common in US National Laboratories and government agencies)
  • Facts cannot legally be copyrighted.
  • Sponsors of research do not get full value unless the resulting data are freely available.
  • Restrictions on data re-use create an anticommons.
  • Data are required for the smooth process of running communal human activities and are an important enabler of socio-economic development (health care, education, economic productivity, etc).[७]
  • In scientific research, the rate of discovery is accelerated by better access to data.[८]

It is generally held that factual data cannot be copyrighted.[९] However, publishers frequently add copyright statements (often forbidding re-use) to scientific data accompanying publications. It may be unclear whether the factual data embedded in full text are part of the copyright.

While the human abstraction of facts from paper publications is normally accepted as legal there is often an implied restriction on the machine extraction by robots.

Unlike Open Access, where groups of publishers have stated their concerns, Open Data is normally challenged by individual institutions. Their arguments have been discussed less in public discourse and there are fewer quotes to rely on at this time.

Arguments against making all data available as Open Data include the following:

  • Government funding may not be used to duplicate or challenge the activities of the private sector (e.g. PubChem).
  • Governments have to be accountable for the efficient use of taxpayer's money: If public funds are used to aggregate the data and if the data will bring commercial (private) benefits to only a small number of users, the users should reimburse governments for the cost of providing the data.
  • The revenue earned by publishing data permits non-profit organisations to fund other activities (e.g. learned society publishing supports the society).
  • The government gives specific legitimacy for certain organisations to recover costs (NIST in US, Ordnance Survey in UK).
  • Privacy concerns may require that access to data is limited to specific users or to sub-sets of the data.
  • Collecting, 'cleaning', managing and disseminating data are typically labour- and/or cost-intensive processes - whoever provides these services should receive fair remuneration for providing those services.
  • Sponsors do not get full value unless their data is used appropriately - sometimes this requires quality management, dissemination and branding efforts that can best be achieved by charging fees to users.
  • Often, targeted end-users cannot use the data without additional processing (analysis, apps etc.) - if anyone has access to the data, none may have an incentive to invest in the processing required to make data useful (Typical examples include biological, medical, and environmental data).

अरू खुला स्रोत अभियान सँग सम्बन्ध[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The goals of the Open Data movement are similar to those of other "Open" movements.

  • Open access is concerned with making scholarly publications freely available on the internet. In some cases, these articles include open datasets as well.
  • Open content is concerned with making resources aimed at a human audience (such as prose, photos, or videos) freely available.
  • Open notebook science refers to the application of the Open Data concept to as much of the scientific process as possible, including failed experiments and raw experimental data.[१०]
  • Open research/Open science/Open science data (Linked open science) means an approach to open and interconnect scientific assets like data, methods and tools with Linked Data techniques to enable transparent, reproducible and transdisciplinary research.[११]
  • Open knowledge. The Open Knowledge Foundation argues for Openness in a range of issues including, but not limited to, those of Open Data. It covers (a) scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise (b) Content such as music, films, books (c) Government and other administrative information. Open data is included within the scope of the Open Knowledge Definition, which is alluded to in Science Commons' Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data.[१२]
  • Open source (software) is concerned with the licenses under which computer programs can be distributed and is not normally concerned primarily with data.

Funders' mandates[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Several funding bodies which mandate Open Access also mandate Open Data. A good expression of requirements (truncated in places) is given by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [१३]:

  • to deposit bioinformatics, atomic and molecular coordinate data, experimental data into the appropriate public database immediately upon publication of research results.
  • to retain original data sets for a minimum of five years after the grant. This applies to all data, whether published or not.

Note the fundamental requirement to be able to replicate the experiment.

Other bodies active in promoting the deposition of data as well as fulltext include the Wellcome Trust.

बन्द तथ्याङ्क[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Several mechanisms restrict access to or reuse of data. They include:

  • making data available for a charge.
  • compilation in databases or websites to which only registered members or customers can have access.
  • use of a proprietary or closed technology or encryption which creates a barrier for access.
  • copyright forbidding (or obfuscating) re-use of the data.
  • license forbidding (or obfuscating) re-use of the data (such as share-alike[स्रोत नखुलेको] or non-commercial)
  • patent forbidding re-use of the data (for example the 3-dimensional coordinates of some experimental protein structures have been patented)
  • restriction of robots to websites, with preference to certain search engines
  • aggregating factual data into "databases" which may be covered by "database rights" or "database directives" (e.g. Directive on the legal protection of databases)
  • time-limited access to resources such as e-journals (which on traditional print were available to the purchaser indefinitely)
  • webstacles, or the provision of single data points as opposed to tabular queries or bulk downloads of data sets.
  • political, commercial or legal pressure on the activity of organisations providing Open Data (for example the American Chemical Society lobbied the US Congress to limit funding to the National Institutes of Health for its Open PubChem data.[१४]

खुला तथ्याङ्कको प्रवर्द्धन गर्ने संगठनहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

बाहिरी सूत्र[सम्पादन गर्ने]

सन्दर्भ सामग्री[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. "Open Government Data Catalogues".
  2. "Open Government Data Catalogues".
  3. "Wikitalia ovvero la partecipazione civica dopo e oltre i referendum", 21 October 2011. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति:7 November 2011.
  4. "Brasil Launches Data Portal in April", 03 Jan 2012.
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aarhus_Convention
  6. On the road to open data, by Ian Manocha
  7. "Big Data for Development: From Information- to Knowledge Societies", Martin Hilbert (2013), SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2205145). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network; http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2205145
  8. How to Make the Dream Come True argues in one research area (Astronomy) that access to open data increases the rate of scientific discovery.
  9. Towards a Science Commons includes an overview of the basis of Openness in science data.
  10. http://drexel-coas-elearning.blogspot.com/2006/09/open-notebook-science.html creation of term
  11. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2011.04.076
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  12. Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data
  13. SPARC-OpenData@arl.org Mailing List Archive
  14. Review of history and positions by the University of California
  15. "Free our data" (The Guardian technology section)
  16. [१]
  17. Linking Open Data on the Semantic Web