"जलवायु परिवर्तन" का संशोधनहरू बिचको अन्तर

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कुनै सम्पादन सारांश छैन्
(काटछाँट गरियो)
[[चित्र:Instrumental Temperature Record.png|thumb|280px|वैश्‍विक मध्‍य सतहको ताप 1961-1990 को सापेक्ष भन्दा अलग छ]]
[[चित्र:Global Warming Map.jpg|thumb|280px|1995 देखि 2004 को समयमा औसत धरातलीय तापमान 1940 देखि 1980 सम्मको औसत तापमान भन्दा भिन्न देखिन्छ]]
'''भूमंडलीय ऊष्मीकरण''' (ग्‍लोबल वर्मिंग)को अर्थ [[पृथ्वी|पृथ्‍वी]]को निकटस्‍थ-सतहको वायु र [[महासागर]]को [[औसत तापमान]] ([[:en:Instrumental temperature record|average measured temperature]])मा 20औं शताब्‍दी देखि भैरहेको वृद्धि र त्यसको अनुमानित निरन्तरता हो।
 
== सन्दर्भ सामग्रीसामग्रीहरू ==
<references/>
 
== थप पढ्नुहोस्==
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{{Wikinewscat|Climate change}}
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{{Wikibooks|Climate Change}}
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{{Portal|Environment}}
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<div class="references-small">
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{{cite book
| title = Financial Risks of Climate Change
| author = Association of British Insurers
| year= 2005-06
| url=http://www.abi.org.uk/Display/File/Child/552/Financial_Risks_of_Climate_Change.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Barnett | first = Tim P.
| coauthors = J. C. Adam, D. P. Lettenmaier
| date = [[2005-11-17]]
| title = Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 438 | issue = 7066 | pages = 303–309
| url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7066/abs/nature04141.html
| doi = 10.1038/nature04141
| format = abstract
}}
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{{cite journal
| last= Behrenfeld | first= Michael J.
| coauthors = Robert T. O'Malley, David A. Siegel, Charles R. McClain, Jorge L. Sarmiento, Gene C. Feldman, Allen G. Milligan, Paul G. Falkowski, Ricardo M. Letelier, Emanuel S. Boss
| date = [[2006-12-07]]
| title = Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 444 | issue = 7120 | pages = 752–755
| url=http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/~davey/MyPapers/Behrenfeld_etal_2006_Nature.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi=10.1038/nature05317
}}
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{{cite journal
| first = Onelack | last= Choi
| coauthors = Ann Fisher
| date = May 2005
| title = The Impacts of Socioeconomic Development and Climate Change on Severe Weather Catastrophe Losses: Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) and the U.S.
| journal = Climate Change
| volume = 58 | issue = 1–2 | pages = 149–170
| doi = 10.1023/A:1023459216609
| url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/m6308777613702q0/
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{{cite book
| last = Dyurgerov | first = Mark B.
| coauthors = Mark F. Meier
| year = 2005
| title = Glaciers and the Changing Earth System: a 2004 Snapshot
| publisher = Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research Occasional Paper #58
| url = http://instaar.colorado.edu/other/download/OP58_dyurgerov_meier.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
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}}
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{{cite journal
| last=Emanuel | first=Kerry A.
| authorlink=Kerry Emanuel
| date= [[2005-08-04]]
| title=Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years.
| journal= [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume=436 | issue=7051 | pages=686–688
| url=ftp://texmex.mit.edu/pub/emanuel/PAPERS/NATURE03906.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi=10.1038/nature03906
}}
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{{cite journal
| last=Hansen | first=James
| authorlink=James Hansen
| coauthors=Larissa Nazarenko, Reto Ruedy, Makiko Sato, Josh Willis, Anthony Del Genio, Dorothy Koch, Andrew Lacis, Ken Lo, Surabi Menon, Tica Novakov, Judith Perlwitz, Gary Russell, [[Gavin A. Schmidt]], Nicholas Tausnev
| date= [[2005-06-03]]
| title=Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications
| journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]]
| volume=308 | issue=5727 | pages=1431–1435
| url=http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/Oceans/GES205/Hansen_Science_Earth's%20Energy%20Balance.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi=10.1126/science.1110252
| pmid=15860591
}}
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{{cite journal
| last= Hinrichs | first= Kai-Uwe
| coauthors=Laura R. Hmelo, Sean P. Sylva
| date=[[2003-02-21]]
| title = Molecular Fossil Record of Elevated Methane Levels in Late Pleistocene Coastal Waters
| journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]]
| volume = 299
| issue = 5610
| pages = 1214–1217
| doi= 10.1126/science.1079601
| pmid = 12595688
}}
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{{cite news
| last=Hirsch | first=Tim
| publisher=[[BBC]]
| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4604332.stm
| title=Plants revealed as methane source
| date=[[2006-01-11]]
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Hoyt | first = Douglas V.
| coauthors = Kenneth H. Schatten
| year = 1993–11
| title = A discussion of plausible solar irradiance variations, 1700–1992
| journal = [[Journal of Geophysical Research]]
| volume = 98 | issue = A11 | pages = 18,895–18,906
| url = http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1993JGR....9818895H&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=448f267ff303582
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{{cite journal
| author = A. V. Karnaukhov
| year = 2001
| title = Role of the Biosphere in the Formation of the Earth’s Climate: The Greenhouse Catastrophe
| journal = Biophysics
| volume = 46 | issue = 6
| url = http://avturchin.narod.ru/Green.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
}}
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{{cite book
| last = Kenneth | first = James P.
| coauthors = Kevin G. Cannariato, Ingrid L. Hendy, Richard J. Behl
| year = [[2003-02-14]]
| title = Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis
| publisher = [[American Geophysical Union]]
| url = https://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/agubooks?book=ASSP0542960
}}
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{{cite news
| last = Keppler | first = Frank
| coauthors = Marc Brass, Jack Hamilton, Thomas Röckmann
| title = Global Warming - The Blame Is not with the Plants
| url = http://www.mpg.de/english/illustrationsDocumentation/documentation/pressReleases/2006/pressRelease200601131/index.html
| publisher = [[Max Planck Society]]
| date = [[2006-01-18]]
}}
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{{cite journal
| title = The effect of increasing solar activity on the Sun's total and open magnetic flux during multiple cycles: Implications for solar forcing of climate
| last = Lean | first = Judith L.
| coauthors = Y.M. Wang, N.R. Sheeley
| year = 2002–12
| journal = [[Geophysical Research Letters]]
| volume = 29 | issue = 24
| url = http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29x..77L
| doi = 10.1029/2002GL015880
| pages = 2224
| format = abstract
}}
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{{cite book
| last = Lerner | first = K. Lee
| coauthors = Brenda Wilmoth Lerner
| title = Environmental issues : essential primary sources.
| publisher = [[Thomson Gale]]
| date = [[2006-07-26]]
| isbn = 1414406258
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = McLaughlin | first = Joseph B.
| coauthors = Angelo DePaola, Cheryl A. Bopp, Karen A. Martinek, Nancy P. Napolilli, Christine G. Allison, Shelley L. Murray, Eric C. Thompson, Michele M. Bird, John P. Middaugh
| title = Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with Alaskan oysters
| journal = [[New England Journal of Medicine]]
| volume = 353 | issue = 14 | pages = 1463–1470
| publisher = New England Medical Society
| date = [[2005-10-06]]
| url = http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/353/14/1463
| doi = 10.1056/NEJMoa051594
| format = abstract
| pmid = 16207848
}}
-->''( अनलाइन संस्करणमा पंजीकरणको आवश्यकता हुन्छ )''
 
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{{cite journal
| last = Muscheler, Raimund
| coauthors = Fortunat Joos, Simon A. Müller, Ian Snowball
| date = [[2005-07-28]]
| title = Climate: How unusual is today's solar activity?
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 436 | issue = 7012 | pages = 1084–1087
| url = http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/ccr/raimund/publications/Muscheler_et_al_Nature2005.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1038/nature04045
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Oerlemans | first = J.
| date = [[2005-04-29]]
| title = Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records
| journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]]
| volume = 308 | issue = 5722 | pages = 675–677
| url=http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU05/04572/EGU05-J-04572.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1126/science.1107046
| pmid = 15746388
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Oreskes | first = Naomi
| authorlink=Naomi Oreskes
| date = [[2004-12-03]]
| title = Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change
| journal = [[Science (journal)|Science]]
| volume = 306 | issue = 5702 | pages = 1686
| url = http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1126/science.1103618
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Purse | first = Bethan V.
| coauthors = Philip S. Mellor, David J. Rogers, Alan R. Samuel, Peter P. C. Mertens, Matthew Baylis
| title = Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe
| journal = [[Nature Reviews Microbiology]]
| volume = 3 | issue = 2 | pages = 171–181
| date = February 2005
| doi = 10.1038/nrmicro1090
| url=http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v3/n2/abs/nrmicro1090_fs.html
| format = abstract
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite news
| last = Revkin | first = Andrew C
| date = [[2005-11-05]]
| title = Rise in Gases Unmatched by a History in Ancient Ice
| publisher = [[The New York Times]]
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/25/science/earth/25core.html?ei=5090&en=d5078e33050b2b0c&ex=1290574800&adxnnl=1&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite book
| last = Ruddiman | first = William F.
| authorlink=William Ruddiman
| date = [[2005-12-15]]
| title = Earth's Climate Past and Future
| location = New York
| publisher = [[Princeton University Press]]
| isbn = 0-7167-3741-8
| url = http://www.whfreeman.com/ruddiman/
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite book
| last = Ruddiman | first = William F.
| authorlink=William Ruddiman
| date = [[2005-08-01]]
| title = Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate
| location = New Jersey
| publisher = [[Princeton University Press]]
| isbn = 0-691-12164-8
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite journal
| last = Solanki | first = Sami K.
| authorlink=Sami Solanki
| coauthors = I.G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schussler, J. Beer
| date = [[2004-10-23]]
| title = Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years.
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 431 | pages = 1084–1087
| url = http://cc.oulu.fi/%7Eusoskin/personal/nature02995.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1038/nature02995
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite journal
| last = Solanki | first = Sami K.
| authorlink=Sami Solanki
| coauthors = I. G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schüssler, J. Beer
| date = [[2005-07-28]]
| title = Climate: How unusual is today's solar activity? (Reply)
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 436
| pages = E4–E5
| url = http://cc.oulu.fi/%7Eusoskin/personal/sola_nature05.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1038/nature04046
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite journal
| last = Sowers | first = Todd
| date = [[2006-02-10]]
| journal = Science
| volume = 311 | issue = 5762 | pages = 838–840
| title = Late Quaternary Atmospheric CH<sub>4</sub> Isotope Record Suggests Marine Clathrates Are Stable
| doi = 10.1126/science.1121235
| pmid = 16469923
}}
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{{cite journal
| last = Svensmark | first = Henrik
| authorlink=Henrik Svensmark
| coauthors = Jens Olaf P. Pedersen, Nigel D. Marsh, Martin B. Enghoff, Ulrik I. Uuggerhøj
| year = [[2007-02-08]]
| title = Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions
| journal = [[Proceedings of the Royal Society]] A
| volume = 463 | issue = 2078 | pages = 385–396
| publisher = FirstCite Early Online Publishing
| doi = 10.1098/rspa.2006.1773
}}
-->''( अनलाइन संस्करणमा पंजीकरणको आवश्यकता हुन्छ )''
 
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| last = Walter | first = K. M.
| coauthors = S. A. Zimov, Jeff P. Chanton, D. Verbyla, [[F. Stuart Chapin III|F. S. Chapin]]
| date = [[2006-09-07]]
| title = Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming
| journal = [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]
| volume = 443 | issue = 7107 | pages = 71–75
| doi = 10.1038/nature05040
}}
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* <!--Translate this template and uncomment
{{cite journal
| last = Wang | first = Y.-M.
| coauthors = J.L. Lean, N.R. Sheeley
| date = [[2005-05-20]]
| title = Modeling the sun's magnetic field and irradiance since 1713
| journal = [[Astrophysical Journal]]
| volume = 625 | pages = 522–538
| url = http://climatesci.colorado.edu/publications/pdf/Wang_2005.pdf
| format = [[Portable Document Format|PDF]]
| doi = 10.1086/429689
}}
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== बाहिरी सूत्र==
 
;वैज्ञानिक
* [http://www.ipcc.ch जलवायु परिवर्तनमा अन्तर सरकारी प्यानल] र [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/44456/story.htm संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको जलवायु रिपोर्ट]
* {[http://www.nature.com/climate/index.html प्रकृतिले जलवायु परिवर्तनको सूचना दिन्छ]
* [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/hadleycentre/index.html ब्रिटेनको मौसम कार्यालय हैडली केन्द्रको साइट]
* [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html#INTRO ग्लोबल वार्मिंगका NOAA को प्राय सोधिने प्रश्नहरू]
* [http://www.aip.org/history/climate डिस्कभरी अफ ग्लोबल वार्मिंग], ग्लोबल वार्मिंगको इतिहासको ,एक व्यापक भूमिका , [[Spencer R.Weart|स्पेन्सर आर द्वारा लिखितWeart]] ([[:en:Spencer R. Weart|Spencer R. Weart]])
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/6460635.stm जलवायु जोखिममा सतर्कताको आग्रह ]
* [http://www.virtualcentre.org/en/library/key_pub/longshad/A0701E00.htm पशुधनमा ग्लोबल वार्मिंगको प्रभाव ( संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको रिपोर्ट )]
 
;शैक्षिक
* [http://climate.jpl.nasa.gov/ वैश्विक जलवायु परिवर्तन : नासाको आँखा पृथ्वीमा]—जलवायु परिवर्तन overviews , प्रमुख संकेतक , मल्टीमीडिया बढी मौजूदा समाचार .
* [http://green.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के छ ?][[नेशनल ज्योग्राफिक]] ([[:en:National Geographic|National Geographic]]) द्वारा – शोच्क्वावे प्रस्तुति
* [http://edgcm.columbia.edu/ EdGCM ( शैक्षिक वैश्विक जलवायु मोडेलिंग ) परियोजना]—एक स्वतन्त्र अनुसन्धान जो विद्यार्थीहरू र वज्ञानिकहरूको लागि एक यस्तो इन्टरफेस हो जसको डेस्कटप कम्प्यूटरमा ग्लोबल वार्मिंगको अनुकरण गर्न सकिन्छ।
* [http://discover.itsc.uah.edu/ DISCOVER] १९७९ देखि उपग्रहमा आधारित महासागर र जलवायुको आंकडा [[नासा|NASA]] बाट प्राप्त
* [http://www.pewclimate.org/ विश्व भरमा जलवायु परिवर्तनमा नजर राख्ने कार्यको लागि The Pew केन्द्र परिचित छ ]
* [[वारेन वाशिङटन]] ([[:en:Warren Washington|Warren Washington]])को कुराकानीको एक [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/events/2007paulingconference/video-s3-4-washington.html भिडियो] जसको शीर्षक छ "ग्लोबल वार्मिंगको विकास : विचार देखि वैज्ञानिक तथ्य सम्म "
* [http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/BestEffortGlobalWarmingTrajectories/ ग्लोबल वार्मिंग को अध्ययनको लागि सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्रयास ] Harvey Lam द्वारा, ( प्रिंसटन विश्वविद्यालय ), [[Wolfram Demonstrations परियोजना|The Wolfram Demonstrations परियोजना]] ([[:en:The Wolfram Demonstrations Project|The Wolfram Demonstrations Project]]).
 
;अन्य
* [http://www.istl.org/01-fall/internet.html विज्ञान र प्रौद्योगिकी सूत्र इन्टरनेटमा] -इन्टरनेट संसाधनहरूको एक व्यापक सूची
* [http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/ चिन्तित वैज्ञानिकहरूको संघको ग्लोबल वार्मिंग सम्बन्धित पृष्ठ]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1647466.htm हेर्नुहोस 'Tipping प्वाइन्ट'], एक अष्ट्रेलियन विज्ञान दस्तावेज , दुर्लभ, साधारण र खतरामा परेका वन्य जीवमा ग्लोबल वार्मिङको प्रभावहरूको बारेमा
* [http://www.un.org/climatechange संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको जलवायु परिवर्तनमा सिस्टमको कामको लागि एक गेटवे]
 
[[श्रेणी:वातावरण]]
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