अश्लिल चलचित्रका कलाकार
"पोर्न स्टार" लेख यहाँ रिडाइरेक्ट हुन्छ। कृपया लेखको अरू उपयोगका लागि पोर्न स्टार (स्पष्टता) हेर्नुहोला।
|अन्य नामहरू||अश्लिल चलचित्र अभिनेता/अभिनेत्री, पोर्न स्टार|
|कार्य क्षेत्र||मनोरन्जन/अश्लिल चलचित्र क्षेत्र|
|Competencies||क्यामरा अगाडी सम्भोग गर्न सक्ने क्षमता|
अश्लिल चलचित्रका कलाकार वा पोर्न स्टार भनेका अश्लिल चलचित्रहरूमा अभिनय गर्ने कलाकारहरू हुन । अधिकांश कलाकार चलचित्रहरूमा नग्न प्रश्तुत हुन्छन (सामान्यतया यौन विधामा बनाइएका चलचित्रहरूमा) । Most genres have specialists who achieve most of their recognition in a specific niche market such as lesbian sex, bondage, strap-on sex, anal sex, double penetration, semen swallowing, teenage women, interracial or MILFs.
Some legal jurisdictions consider commercial pornography a form of prostitution, though most commercial sex film performers do not regard themselves as prostitutes for various reasons, but rather as actors or models.[स्रोत नखुलेको] Most notably these performers are not paid directly by their sexual partners for the sex, but both are paid through a studio or Talent Management Agency.
In the United States, federal law prohibits the sale, distribution or dissemination of obscene materials through the mail, over the broadcast airwaves, on cable or satellite TV, on the Internet, over the telephone or by any other means that cross state lines. Most states also have specific laws banning the sale or distribution of obscene pornography within state borders. The only protection for obscene material recognized by the Supreme Court of the United States is personal possession in the home Stanley v. Georgia.
The Supreme Court of the United States affirmed in Miller v. California that obscenity was not protected speech. Further, the court ruled that each community is responsible for setting its own standards about what is considered to be obscene material. If pornographic material is prosecuted and brought to trial, a jury can deem it obscene based on:
- whether "the average person, applying contemporary community standards" would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest
- whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law and
- whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.
इतिहास [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Performers have appeared in sex films since the era of photography began. Many "penny arcades" of the early 1900s had hand-cranked films and rotoscope (Holmes-style Stereoscope) glasses that featured nudity.
These penny arcade attractions depicted topless women, full frontal nudity, and even sexual coupling. Performers in these early photograph and film recordings usually chose to remain anonymous to avoid legal sanction and social approbation.
Linda Lovelace, an American pornographic actress of the early '70s, is often seen as the first modern porn star with appreciable name recognition outside her genre. Lovelace starred in the 1972 feature Deep Throat. It was Casey Donovan who starred in the very first mainstream pornographic hit, Boys in the Sand, in 1971, nearly a year before Deep Throat, but it was the success of Deep Throat that encouraged the ascension of more such stars and the production of more such films. Examples include Marilyn Chambers (Behind the Green Door), Gloria Leonard (The Opening of Misty Beethoven), Georgina Spelvin (The Devil in Miss Jones), and Bambi Woods (Debbie Does Dallas).
The 1970s have been called The Golden Age of Porn, a time when pornographic films were shown in public theaters and accepted (or at least tolerated) for public consumption. This "golden age" lasted from the 1970s through the late-70s or early 1980s. Sex films of this era had specific storylines, plots, and promotional budgets. Performers became celebrities. Such performers include Peter Berlin, John Holmes, Ginger Lynn Allen, Porsche Lynn, Desireé Cousteau, Juliet Anderson ("Aunt Peg"), Lisa De Leeuw, Veronica Hart, Nina Hartley, Harry Reems, Seka, and Amber Lynn.
Once people could watch adult movies in the privacy of their own homes, a new adult market developed that far exceeded the scope of its theater-centric predecessor. More recently, the Internet has served as catalyst for creating a still-larger market for porn, a market that is even less traditionally theatrical.
There are hundreds of adult film companies today, releasing tens of thousands of productions, recorded directly on video, with minimal sets. Of late, web-cams and web-cam recordings are again expanding the market. Thousands of pornographic actors work in front of the camera to satisfy pornography consumers' demand.
कानूनी समस्या [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Attempts were made in the 1970s to outlaw pornography in the United States by prosecuting porn stars for prostitution. The case was initially made in California, and stopped short of advancing the case to the United States Supreme Court for a final decision. It was this decision and acceptance to let stand whereby the California Court made a legal distinction in the case of People v. Freeman between someone who took part in a sexual relationship for money (prostitution) versus someone who takes on the act of merely portraying role where a sexual relationship was engaged in on-screen act as part of their acting performance. It is this specific legal distinction between pornography and prostitution in California law that allowed California to become the porn center of the United States.
At present, no other state in the United States has either implemented or accepted this legal distinction between commercial pornography performers versus prostitutes as shown in the Florida case where sex film maker Clinton Raymond McCowen, aka "Ray Guhn", was indicted on charges of "soliciting and engaging in prostitution" for his creation of pornography films which included "McCowen and his associates recruited up to 100 local men and women to participate in group sex scenes, the affidavit says." The distinction that California has in its legal determination in the Freeman decision is usually denied in most states' local prostitution laws, which do not specifically exclude performers from such inclusion.
In some cases, some states have ratified their local state laws for inclusion to prevent California's Freeman decision to be applied to actors who are paid a fee for sexual actions within their state borders. One example is the state of Texas whose prostitution law specifically states:
- An offense is established under Subsection (a)(1) whether the actor is to receive or pay a fee. An offense is established under Subsection (a)(2) whether the actor solicits a person to hire him or offers to hire the person solicited.
अभिनेत्रीहरू [सम्पादन गर्ने]
According to actor-turned-director Jonathan Morgan, "The girls could be graded like A, B and C. The A is the chick on the boxcover. She has the power. So she'll show up late or not at all. 99.9% of them do that." Less successful actresses are more likely to perform more extreme acts such as 'double-anal'. If an actress is willing to perform more extreme acts she will receive more offers of work. Older or less attractive actresses are more likely to perform such acts in order to get work. According to Morgan, "Some girls are used up in nine months or a year. An 18-year-old, sweet young thing, signs with an agency, makes five films in her first week. Five directors, five actors, five times five: she gets phone calls. A hundred movies in four months. She's not a fresh face any more. Her price slips and she stops getting phone calls. Then it's, 'Okay, will you do anal? Will you do gangbangs?' Then they're used up. They can't even get a phone call. The market forces of this industry use them up." Some film studios encourage their actresses to have breast implants, and offer to pay for the procedure.
Conversely, some performers are not unhappy with their job, while still noting that "a performer's pleasure is not of primary importance" and that "porn sex is not the same as private sex". Furthermore, there is evidence to say that porn production is not necessarily unethical or degrading. According to Lynn Comella, a women's studies professor at UNLV, presenting demeaning practices as representative of the entire porn industry is "akin to talking about Hollywood while only referencing spaghetti Westerns".
Due to the substantial amount of evidence both for and against the idea that women are degraded in pornography, it is likely that individual experiences vary depending on the director, the performer, and the type of porn being produced. As with other social phenomena, gross generalizations may be problematic.
अभिनेताहरू [सम्पादन गर्ने]
While the primary focus of heterosexual sex films are the women in them, who are mostly selected for their on-screen appearance, there is a definite focus on the male performers who are able to fulfill the desires of the male watching audience as their on-screen proxies. Most male performers in heterosexual pornography are generally selected less for their looks than for their sexual prowess, namely their ability to do three things: achieve an erection while on a busy film set, maintain that erection while performing on camera, and then ejaculate on cue. In the past an actors' inability to maintain an erection could make the difference between a film turning a profit or a loss. However this problem has been solved by the use of Viagra. If an actor loses his erection, filming is forced to stop for about 45 minutes whilst the drug takes effect. Using Viagra can make the actor's face noticeably flushed, give him a headache, and make it difficult to ejaculate. According to director John Stagliano, using Viagra means "You also lose a dimension." "The guy's fucking without being aroused."
Ron Jeremy, John Holmes, Peter North, and Rocco Siffredi are considered by AVN as the top male performers of all time. Adding to his fame, Ron Jeremy has been a staple in the industry since the 1970s and has become something of a cultural icon.
पारिश्रमिक [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Most male performers in heterosexual porn are paid less than their female costars. Ron Jeremy has commented on the pay scale of women and men of the sex film industry: in 2003 "Girls can easily make 100K-250K per year, plus stuff on the side like strip shows and appearances. The average male makes $40,000 a year." and in 2008, "The average guy gets $300 to $400 a scene, or $100 to $200 if he's new. A woman makes $100,000 to $250,000 at the end of the year."
In 2011, the manager of Capri Anderson said, "A contract girl will only shoot for one company, she won’t shoot for anyone else. Most actresses in the adult industry are free agents – they’ll shoot for anyone. Most contract girls make $60,000 a year. In one year, a contract girl will shoot, on average, four movies and each movie takes about two or three weeks to shoot."
Some state that gay male porn generally pays men much more than heterosexual porn.[स्रोत नखुलेको] Men who identify themselves as heterosexual but perform in gay pornography are said to do gay-for-pay (notably Wolf Hudson). This means they perform in gay movies only for the paycheck, not because of any personal attraction to men.
According to producer Seymore Butts, who runs his own sex-film recruitment agency, as well as producing sex films; "depending on draw, female performers who perform in both straight and lesbian porn earn more than those who do [just heterosexual scenes] usually make about US$200–800 while those who only do oral sex (blow job) usually only make about US$100–300 for the scene". It was also noted in an interview conducted by Local10 news of Florida that individuals were offered $700 for sexual intercourse while shooting a scene of the popular series Bang Bus in 2004. According to Videobox, a porn website, actresses make these rates: Blowjobs: $200–$400; Straight sex: $400–$1,200; Anal sex: $900–$1,500; Double Penetration: $1,200–$1,600; Double anal: $2,000. For more unusual fetishes, women generally get 15% extra.
In 2001, actress Chloe said of pay-rates; "In Gonzo, you're paid not by the picture, but by the scene. So it's girl-girl: $700, plus $100 for an anal toy. Boy-girl: $900. Anal: $1,100. Solo: $500. DP: $1,500."
Additionally, besides appearing in films, porn stars often make money from endorsements and appearance fees. For instance, in 2010, some night clubs were paying female porn stars and Playboy Playmates to appear there to act as draws for the general public; Jesse Jane was reported to have been paid between $5,000 to $10,000 for one appearance by a Chicago club.
अश्लिल चलचित्रका कलाकार र यौन संक्रमणहरू [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Because of the nature of their work, usually involving sex without condoms, pornographic actors were traditionally vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases. In a paper written by the LA Board of Public Health, officials claimed that among 825 performers screened in 2000–2001, 7.7% of females and 5.5% of males had chlamydia, and 2% overall had gonorrhea. These rates are much higher than in patients visiting family planning clinics, where chlamydia and gonorrhea rates were 4.0% and 0.7%, respectively. Between January 2003 and March 2005, approximately 976 performers were reported with 1,153 positive STD test results. Of the 1,153 positive test results, 722 (62.6 %) were chlamydia, 355 (30.8%) were gonorrhea, and 126 (10.9%) were coinfections with chlamydia and gonorrhea. Less is known about the prevalence and risk of transmission of other STDs such as syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B or C, trichomonal infection, or diseases transmitted through the fecal–oral route. The data collection of LA public health was criticized by adult industry sources on the grounds that most of those testing positive had never made an adult film-and were in fact being excluded from adult film acting until they had treated their STDs. Non-treatable STDs like HSV represent a difficult case: according to actress Chloe, "After you've been in this business for a while, you have herpes. Everyone has herpes."
The high rate of STDs in the adult film industry started to change in 1998 when major adult film producers started implementing a regular periodic testing program for adult film actors. In the 1980s, an outbreak of HIV led to a number of deaths of erotic actors and actresses, including John Holmes, Wade Nichols, Marc Stevens, and Al Parker. This led to the creation of the Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation (AIM), which helped set up a voluntary standard in the U.S. adult film industry where erotic actors are tested for HIV, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea every 30 days-and twice a year for HSV, Hepatitis and Syphilis. AIM posts test results on their website identified with the actors drivers license number so they can be shared without any possibility of fraud. AIM claims that this program has reduced the rate of STDs among adult film actors to 20% that of the general population. These claims have been criticized by various public health authorities-but there have been no controlled studies that support the claims of public health authorities that AIM's testing approach is not working.
Autobiographies [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- My Story, Marilyn Chambers, 1975 (ISBN 0446798274)
- "Inside Linda Lovelace" (1974), "The Intimate Diary of Linda Lovelace" (1974), "Ordeal" (1980), & "Out of Bondage" (1986), Linda Lovelace
- Raw Talent, Jerry Butler, 1990 (ISBN 087975625X)
- Hard, Raffaëla Anderson, 2001 (ISBN 2253154490) (in French)
- Penetrating Insights, Peter North, 1994 (ISBN 1885591225)
- The Secret Lives of Hyapatia Lee, Hyapatia Lee, 2000 (ISBN 1587219069)
- Traci Lords: Underneath It All, Traci Lords, 2003
- Sex Star, Clara Morgane, 2003 (in French)
- J'assume, Nina Roberts, mai 2005 (ISBN 2350120201) (in French)
- How to Make Love Like a Porn Star: A Cautionary Tale, Jenna Jameson, 2005
- Secretos de una pornostar, Celia Blanco, 2005 (in Spanish)
- Porno – Ein Star packt aus, Kelly Trump, 2005 (in German)
- Lights, Camera, SEX!, Christy Canyon, 2005 (ISBN 0972747001)
- Io, Rocco, Rocco Siffredi, 2006 (in Italian) (ISBN 8804559950)
- The Hardest (Working) Man in Showbiz, Ron Jeremy, 2006 (ISBN 0060840838)
- Per amore e per forza, Ilona Staller, 2007 (in Italian)
- Zen and the Art of fucking Pornography, Harold Johnson, 2008 (ISBN 1438204302)
- The Devil Made Me Do It, Georgina Spelvin, 2008 (ISBN 0615199070)
- Candy Barr AKA Juanita Dale Slusher, Candy Barr, 2009 (ISBN 97809818220)
- Sinner Takes All: A Memoir of Love and Porn, Tera Patrick, 2009 (ISBN 1592405223)
- Truth Behind the Fantasy of Porn: The Greatest Illusion on Earth, Shelley Lubben, 2010 (ISBN 9781453860076)
यो पनि हेर्नुहोस [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- श्रेणी:अश्लिल चलचित्रका कलाकारहरू
- श्रेणी:अश्लील चलचित्र अभिनेत्री
- अमेरिकन अश्लील चलचित्र अभिनेत्रीहरूको सूची
- एसियन अश्लील चलचित्र अभिनेत्रीहरूको सूची
- शताब्दीगत अश्लील चलचित्र अभिनेत्रीहरूको सूची
सन्दर्भ सूची [सम्पादन गर्ने]
- "40 Years of Gay History: the Early Seventies"
- Second wave: Feminism and porns golden age. Radical Society Oct 2002 by Loren Glass
- "Webmaster Ray Guhn Arrested in Florida"
- "Texas Penal Code, Chapter 43: Public Indecency" [dead link]
- Martin Amis. "A rough trade", guardian.co.uk, March 17, 2001. Retrieved on April 10, 2009.
- Blue, Violet. "Sex for money, not love / Violet Blue asks rising adult superstar Lorelei Lee about the differences between sex work and sex not-for-work", The San Francisco Chronicle, June 28, 2011.
- Lynn Comella is a Women’s Studies professor at UNLV., "Feminists Gone Wild! A response to porn critic Gail Dines"
- "AVN: The 10 Top Porn Stars of All Time", Adult Video News, Action-DVD.com, January 2002
- "Product Description", Being Ron Jeremy, Amazon.com, Inc.
- Jameson, Jenna (2004), How to Make Love Like a Porn Star: A Cautionary Tale, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-053909-7, "(Y)ou have to be able to get it up at will. You have to keep an erection, go a long time without coming, and then come on command."
- "Jeremy spoke in class today: An exclusive interview with porn movie legend, Ron Jeremy", 2003
- "Ron Jeremy Hyatt – AskMen", 2008
- Meaghan Murphy. "Charlie Sheen Gives Porn Industry 'Shot in the Arm'", www.foxnews.com, 2011-03-10. Retrieved on 2011-03-13.
- Fritz, Ben. "Tough times in the porn industry", Los Angeles Times, August 10, 2009.
- "How to become a porn star and get in the Porn business"
- "Porn Bus Shoots Sex On The Move", November 17, 2004
- "The VideoBox Blog » Blog Archive » How Much Do Porn Stars Make?", 2008-02-22
- Charlie Amter. "Some L.A. nightclubs attract crowds with racy models", Los Angeles Times, 2010-08-27. Retrieved on 2010-08-29.
- Grudzen, Corita R. (June 19, 2007), "The Adult Film Industry: Time to Regulate?", PLoS Medicine, Public Library of Science, U.S. National Library of Medicine
- "Porn stars at L.A. convention defend HIV tests", Los Angeles Times, June 13, 2009. Retrieved on June 13, 2009.
- "Aim Myspace Page", April 4, 2011
बाहिरी लिङ्कहरू [सम्पादन गर्ने]
|विकिमीडिया कमन्समा अरु धेरै सामाग्रीहरू छन्: Porn stars|