दलाइ लामा

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्
दलाइ लामा
1st Dalai Lama.jpg
गेन्डुन ड्रूप, प्रथम दलाइ लामा
शासन 1391–1474
तिब्बती ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་
विली अनुवाद taa la'i bla ma
उच्चारण [taːlɛː lama]
टीएचडीएल दलाइ लामा
पिनयिन चिनियाँ Dálài Lǎmā
शाही भवन प्रथम दलाइ लामा / टक्ला

दलाई लामा तिब्बती बौद्ध धर्मगुरू हुन्। तिब्बत चीनको अधिनमा हुनुपुर्व दलाई लामा तिब्बतका शासक हुने गर्थे।

इतिहास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

मंगोलियन भाषामा दलाईको अर्थ समुन्द्र र लामाको अर्थ गुरू हुन्छ। दलाई लामाको अर्थ अध्यात्मिक गुरू भन्ने लाग्छ। [१] दलाई लामाको पद्वी पहिलो पटक मंगोलियाका शासक अल्तान खानले 1578मा सोनाम ग्यास्तोलाई प्रयोग गरेका थिए।. त्यसपछिका उनका उत्तराधिकारीहरूले यो पदवी प्रयोग गर्दै आए।[२]

दलाइ लामाका उत्तराधिकारीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The title "Dalai Lama" is presently granted to each of the spiritual leader's successive incarnations (for example, The 14th Dalai Lama's next incarnation will hold the title "the 15th Dalai Lama").

Upon the death of the Dalai Lama, उनका monks institute a search for the Lama's reincarnation, or yangsi (yang srid), a small child. Familiarity with the possessions of the previous Dalai Lama is considered the main sign of the reincarnation. The search for the reincarnation typically requires a few years. The reincarnation is then brought to Lhasa to be trained by the other Lamas.

दलाइ लामाको भविष्य[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Despite its officially secular stance, the सरकार of the People's Republic of China has claimed the power to approve the naming of high reincarnations in Tibet. This decision cites a precedent set by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, who instituted a system of selecting the Dalai Lama र the Panchen Lama by means of a lottery which utilised a golden urn with names wrapped in barley balls. Controversially, this precedent was called upon by the PRC to name their own Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama र the majority of Tibetan Buddhists in exile do not regard this to be the legitimate Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama has recognized a different child, Gendan Choekyi Nyima, as the reincarnated Panchen Lama. This child र उनका family have been taken into 'protective custody' according to the PRC, र all attempts by members of the EU parliament र US सरकार to garner guarantees of the families safety have been denied by the PRC. There is some speculation that with the death of the current Dalai Lama, the People's Republic of China will attempt to direct the selection of a successor, using the authority of their chosen Panchen Lama.

The current Dalai Lama has repeatedly stated that he will never be reborn inside territory controlled by the People's Republic of China[३], र has occasionally suggested that he might choose to be the last Dalai Lama by not being reborn at all. However, he has also stated that the purpose of उनका repeated incarnations is to continue unfinished work and, as such, if the situation in Tibet remains unchanged, it is very likely that he will be reborn to finish उनका work.[४] Additionally, in the draft constitution of future Tibet, the institution of the Dalai Lama can be revoked at any time by a democratic majority vote of two-thirds of the Assembly. The 14th Dalai Lama has stated, "Personally, I feel the institution of the Dalai Lama has served its purpose."[४]

बासस्थान[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Starting with the 5th Dalai Lama र until the 14th Dalai Lama's flight into exile in 1959, the Dalai Lamas resided during winter at the Potala Palace, र in the summer at the Norbulingka palace र park. Both residences are located in Lhasa, Tibet, approximately 3 km apart. In 1959, subsequent to the then ongoing Chinese occupation of Tibet, the 14th Dalai Lama sought refuge within India. The then Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru was instrumental in granting safe refuge to the Dalai Lama र उनका fellow Tibetans. The Dalai Lama has since been in refuge in धर्मशाला, in the state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India, where the Central Tibetan Administration (The Tibetan Government in Exile) is also established. Tibetan refugees have constructed र opened many schools र Buddhist temples[तथ्य वांछित] in Dharamsala.

दलाइ लामाहरूको सुची[सम्पादन गर्ने]

अहिलेसम्म १४ वटा दलाई लामाहरू भएका छन्।

Name Lifespan Reign Tibetan/Wylie PRC transcription Other English spelling(s)
1. Gendun Drup 1391–1474 ?[५] དྒེ་འདུན་འགྲུབ་
dge ‘dun ‘grub
Gêdün Chub Gedun Drub, Gedün Drup, Gendun Drup
2. Gendun Gyatso 1475–1541 ?[५] དགེ་འདུན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
dge ‘dun rgya mtsho
Gêdün Gyaco Gedün Gyatso, Gendün Gyatso
3. Sonam Gyatso 1543–1588 1578–1588 བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
bsod nams rgya mtsho
Soinam Gyaco Sönam Gyatso
4. Yonten Gyatso 1589–1616 ? ཡོན་ཏན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
yon tan rgya mtsho
Yoindain Gyaco Yontan Gyatso
5. Lobsang Gyatso 1617–1682 1642–1682 བློ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
blo bzang rgya mtsho
Lobsang Gyaco Lobzang Gyatso, Lopsang Gyatso
6. Tsangyang Gyatso 1683–1706 ?–1706 ཚང་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
tshang dbyangs rgya mtsho
Cangyang Gyaco
7. Kelzang Gyatso 1708–1757 1751–1757 བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
bskal bzang rgya mtsho
Gaisang Gyaco Kelsang Gyatso, Kalsang Gyatso
8. Jamphel Gyatso 1758–1804 1786–1804 བྱམས་སྤེལ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
byams spel rgya mtsho
Qambê Gyaco Jampel Gyatso, Jampal Gyatso
9. Lungtok Gyatso 1806–1815 (1808–1815)[५] ལུང་རྟོགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
lung rtogs rgya mtsho
Lungdog Gyaco Lungtog Gyatso
10. Tsultrim Gyatso 1816–1837 ? ཚུལ་ཁྲིམ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
tshul khrim rgya mtsho
Cüchim Gyaco Tshültrim Gyatso
11. Khendrup Gyatso 1838–1856 1844–1856 མཁས་གྲུབ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
mkhas grub rgya mtsho
Kaichub Gyaco Kedrub Gyatso
12. Trinley Gyatso 1857–1875 ? འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
‘phrin las rgya mtsho
Chinlai Gyaco Trinle Gyatso
13. Thubten Gyatso 1876–1933 ? ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
thub bstan rgya mtsho
Tubdain Gyaco Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso
14. Tenzin Gyatso 1935–present 1950–present
(currently in exile)
བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho
Dainzin Gyaco
Throne awaiting Dalai Lama's return. Summer residence of 13th Dalai Lama, Nechung, Tibet.

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नोट[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. Art Hughes. "The Thirteen Previous Dalai Lamas", Part of MPR's special report, Ocean of Wisdom: The Dalai Lama's Visit, Minnesota Public Radio, May 7, 2001.
  2. Parenti, Michael (2003). Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth.
  3. "Dalai's reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control", The Indian Express, Tibetan Government in Exile, 1999-07-06. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति:2007-01-27.
  4. ४.० ४.१ Questions & Answers, The Website of The Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ The title "Dalai Lama" was conferred posthumously to the first र second Dalai Lamas. The 9th Dalai Lama was officially enthroned, but never reigned.

सन्दर्भहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  • Yá Hánzhāng 牙含章: The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas (Dálài Lǎmá chuán 达赖喇嘛传; Beijing, Foreign Languages Press 1993); ISBN 7-119-01267-3.

बाहिरी लिङ्कहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]