सरुवा रोग चिकित्सा

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्


In medicine, infectious रोग or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent such as by a भाइरस, bacterium or parasite. This is contrasted to physical causes, such as burns or chemical ones such as through intoxication.

Basics[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Infectious diseases are the invasion of a host organism by a foreign replicator, generally microorganisms, often called microbes, that are invisible to the naked eye. Microbes that cause illness are also known as pathogens. The most common pathogens are various bacteria र viruses, though a number of other microorganisms, including some kinds of fungiprotozoa, also cause रोग. Prions are borderline, र memes would not usually be considered in this scope. An infectious रोग is termed contagious if it is easily transmitted from one person to another.

An organism that a microbe infects is known as the host for that microbe. In the human host, a microorganism causes रोग by either disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune system to mount a defensive reaction. An immune response against a pathogen, which can include a high fever, inflammation, र other damaging symptoms, can be more devastating than the direct damage caused by the microbe.

Agents र vectors[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Infectious रोग requires an agent र a mode of transmission (or vector). A good example is malaria, which is caused by Plasmodial parasites, chiefly Plasmodium falciparum but does not affect humans unless the vector, the Anopheles mosquito, is around to introduce the parasite into the human bloodstream.

The vector does not have to be biological. Many infectious diseases are transmitted by droplets which enter the airway (e.g. common coldtuberculosis).

Mortality from infectious diseases[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The World Health Organization collects information on global deaths by International Classification of रोग (ICD) code categories. The following table lists the top infectious रोग killers which caused more than १००,००० deaths in २००२ (estimated). १९९३ data is also included for comparison.

2002 1993
World population 6.2 billion 5.5 billion
Total deaths from all causes 57 million 100% 51 million
Rank Cause of death Number Percentage of total Number 1993 Rank
I. Communicable diseases category 14.9 million 26.0%
1
Lower respiratory infections
3.9 million 6.8% 4.1 million 1
2
HIV/AIDS
2.8 million 4.9% 0.7 million 7
3
Diarrheal diseases
1.8 million 3.2% 3.0 million 2
4
Tuberculosis (TB)
1.6 million 2.7% 2.7 million 3
5
Malaria
1.3 million 2.2% 2.0 million 4
6
Measles
0.6 million 1.1% 1.1 million 5
7
Pertussis
0.30 million 0.5% 0.36 million 7
8
Tetanus
0.21 million 0.4% 0.15 million 12
9
Meningitis
0.17 million 0.3% 0.25 million 8
10
Syphilis
0.16 million 0.3% 0.19 million 11
11
Hepatitis B
0.10 million 0.2% 0.93 million 6
Tropical रोगs (6)
0.13 million 0.2% 0.53 million 9, 10, 16, 17, 18
(Note: The other categories of death are maternal र perinatal conditions (५.२%), nutritional deficiencies (०.९%), noncommunicable conditions (५८.८%), र injuries (९.१%).)

The top three single agent रोग killers are HIV/AIDS, TBmalaria. From १९९३ to २००२, the death ranking for AIDS went up from ७th to २nd र Hepatitis B went down from ६th to ११th. While the number of deaths has decreased in almost every रोग, it has increased four-fold in AIDS.

Lower respiratory infections, which include various pneumonias, र diarrheal diseases are caused by many different viruses, bacteria or parasites.

Childhood diseases include pertussis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measlestetanus. Children also make up a large percentage of lower respiratory र diarrheal deaths.

Tropical diseases include Chagas रोग, dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasistrypanosomiasis.

Historic pandemics[सम्पादन गर्ने]

A pandemic (or global epidemic) is a रोग that affects people over an extensive geographical area.

  • The Influenza Pandemic of १९१८ or Spanish Flu killed २५ to ४० million in १ year (about २% of world population of १.७ billion).
    • Influenza now kills about २५०,००० to ५००,००० worldwide each year.
  • The Black Death of १३४७ to १३५२ killed २५ million in Europe over ५ years (estimate of २५ to ५०% of Europe, Asia, र Africa - world population was ५०० million).

नयां रोगहरु र pandemics[सम्पादन गर्ने]

In some cases, a microorganism र its host live in reasonable harmony. Such is the case for many tropical viruses र the insects, monkeys, or other animals in which they have lived र reproduced for thousands or millions of years. Because the microbes र their hosts have co-evolved together, the hosts have gradually become resistant to the microorganisms. But when a microbe jumps from a long-time animal host to a human being, it may cease being a harmless parasite and—simply because it is new to the human species—become a pathogen. (See infection).

With most new infectious diseases, some human action is involved, changing the environment so that an existing microbe can take up residence in a new ecological niche. Once that happens, a pathogen that had been confined to a remote habitat appears in a new or wider region, or a microbe that had infected only animals suddenly begins causing human रोग.

Several human activities have led to the emergence र spread of new diseases:

Encroachment on wildlife habitats. The construction of new villages र housing developments in rural areas brings people into contact with animals--and the microbes they harbor.
Changes in agriculture. The introduction of new crops attracts new crop pests र the microbes they carry to farming communities, exposing people to unfamiliar diseases.
Destroying rain forests. As tropical countries make use of their rain forests, building roads through forests र clearing areas for settlement or commercial ventures, people encounter insects र other animals harboring unknown microorganisms.
Uncontrolled urbanization. The rapid growth of cities in many developing countries concentrates large numbers of people in crowded areas with poor sanitation, which foster the transmission of contagious diseases.
Modern transport. Ships र other cargo carriers often harbor unintended "passengers," such as insects र rats, that can spread diseases to faraway destinations.
High-speed globe-trotting. With international jet-airplane travel, people infected with a new रोग can carry the रोग to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear.

The relationship between virulence र transmission is complex, र has important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen. If a रोग is rapidly fatal, the host may die before the microbe can get passed along to another host. However, this cost may be overwhelmed by the short term benefit of higher infectiousness if transmission is linked to virulence, as it is for instance in the case of cholera (the explosive diarrhoea aids the bacterium in finding new hosts) or many respiratory infections (sneezing, coughing etc create infectious aerosols). Since it takes time for a microbe र a new host species to co-evolve an emerging pathogen may hit its earliest victims especially hard. It is usually in the first wave of a new रोग that death rates are highest.

Diagnosis र therapy[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The field of infectious diseases also occupies itself with the diagnosistherapy of infection.

Diagnosis[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Diagnosis is initially by medical history र physical examination, र imaging (such as X-rays), but the principal tool in infectious रोग is the microbiological culture. In a culture, a growth medium is provided for a particular agent. After inoculation of a specimen of diseased fluid or tissue onto the medium, it is determined whether bacterial growth occurs. This works for a number of bacteria, for example Staphylococcus or Streptococcus.

Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example the above-mentioned Treponema pallidum र most viruses. The first serological markers were developed to diagnose syphilis (the Wassermann test, later replaced by the VDRLTPHA tests). Serology involves detecting the antibodies against an infectious agent in the patient's blood. In immunocompromised patients (e.g. AIDS), serology can be troublesome, because the antibody reaction is blunted.

A more recent development is direct detection of viral proteins and/or DNA in blood or secretions. This can be done by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), involving the amplification of viral DNA र its subsequent detection with anti-DNA probes.

Infectious रोगको बर्गिकरण[सम्पादन गर्ने]

One way of proving that a given रोग is "infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (Robert Koch), which demand that the infectious agent is identified in patients र not in controls, र that patients who contract the agent also develop the रोग. These postulates were tried र tested in the discovery of Mycobacteria as the cause for tuberculosis. Often, it is not possible to meet some of the criteria, even in diseases that are quite clearly infectious. For example, Treponema pallidum, the causative spirochete of syphilis, cannot be cultured in vitro - however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes].

Epidemiology is another important tool used to study रोग in a population. For infectious diseases it helps to determine if a रोग outbreak is sporadic (occasional occurrence), endemic (regular cases often occurring in a region), epidemic (an unusually high number of cases in a region), or pandemic (a global epidemic).

Therapy[सम्पादन गर्ने]

When a culture has proven to be positive, the sensitivity (or, conversely, the antibiotic resistance) of an agent can be determined by exposing it to test doses of antibiotic. This way, the microbiologist determines how sensitive the target bacterium is to a certain antibiotic. This is usually reported as being: Sensitive, Intermediate or Resistant. The antibiogram can then be used to determine optimal therapy for the patient. This can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics र lead to a decrease in antibiotic resistance.

The work of an infectiologist[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Doctors who specialise in the medical treatment of infectious रोग are called infectiologists or infectious रोग specialists. Generally, infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians or internal medicine specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated by the internist or the pulmonologist (lung physician).

The services of the infectious रोग team are called for when:

The work of the infectiologist therefore entails working with patients र doctors on one hand र laboratory scientistsimmunologists on the other hand.

इतिहास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) advanced the science of microscopy, allowing easy visualization of bacteria.

Louis Pasteur proved beyond doubt that certain diseases can be caused by infectious agents, र developed a vaccine for rabies.

Robert Koch, mentioned above, gave the study of infectious diseases a scientific basis by formulating Koch's postulates.

Edward Jenner, Jonas SalkAlbert Sabin developed successful vaccines for Smallpoxpolio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.

Alexander Fleming discovers the world's first antibiotic Penicillin which in turn inspired the discovery of the other antibiotics available today.

Gerhard Domagk develops Sulphonamides, the first broad spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs.

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्।[सम्पादन गर्ने]

References[सम्पादन गर्ने]

External links[सम्पादन गर्ने]


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