सरुवा रोग चिकित्सा
In medicine, infectious रोग or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent such as by a भाइरस, bacterium or parasite. This is contrasted to physical causes, such as burns or chemical ones such as through intoxication.
Infectious diseases are the invasion of a host organism by a foreign replicator, generally microorganisms, often called microbes, that are invisible to the naked eye. Microbes that cause illness are also known as pathogens. The most common pathogens are various bacteria र viruses, though a number of other microorganisms, including some kinds of fungi र protozoa, also cause रोग. Prions are borderline, र memes would not usually be considered in this scope. An infectious रोग is termed contagious if it is easily transmitted from one person to another.
An organism that a microbe infects is known as the host for that microbe. In the human host, a microorganism causes रोग by either disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune system to mount a defensive reaction. An immune response against a pathogen, which can include a high fever, inflammation, र other damaging symptoms, can be more devastating than the direct damage caused by the microbe.
Agents र vectors[सम्पादन गर्ने]
Infectious रोग requires an agent र a mode of transmission (or vector). A good example is malaria, which is caused by Plasmodial parasites, chiefly Plasmodium falciparum but does not affect humans unless the vector, the Anopheles mosquito, is around to introduce the parasite into the human bloodstream.
Mortality from infectious diseases[सम्पादन गर्ने]
The World Health Organization collects information on global deaths by International Classification of रोग (ICD) code categories. The following table lists the top infectious रोग killers which caused more than 100,000 deaths in 2002 (estimated). 1993 data is also included for comparison.
|World population||6.2 billion||5.5 billion|
|Total deaths from all causes||57 million||100%||51 million|
|Rank||Cause of death||Number||Percentage of total||Number||1993 Rank|
|I. Communicable diseases category||14.9 million||26.0%|
|1||3.9 million||6.8%||4.1 million||1|
|2||2.8 million||4.9%||0.7 million||7|
|3||1.8 million||3.2%||3.0 million||2|
||1.6 million||2.7%||2.7 million||3|
|5||1.3 million||2.2%||2.0 million||4|
|6||0.6 million||1.1%||1.1 million||5|
|7||0.30 million||0.5%||0.36 million||7|
|8||0.21 million||0.4%||0.15 million||12|
|9||0.17 million||0.3%||0.25 million||8|
|10||0.16 million||0.3%||0.19 million||11|
|11||0.10 million||0.2%||0.93 million||6|
||0.13 million||0.2%||0.53 million||9, 10, 16, 17, 18|
- (Note: The other categories of death are maternal र perinatal conditions (5.2%), nutritional deficiencies (0.9%), noncommunicable conditions (58.8%), र injuries (9.1%).)
The top three single agent रोग killers are HIV/AIDS, TB र malaria. From 1993 to 2002, the death ranking for AIDS went up from 7th to 2nd र Hepatitis B went down from 6th to 11th. While the number of deaths has decreased in almost every रोग, it has increased four-fold in AIDS.
Historic pandemics[सम्पादन गर्ने]
- The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 or Spanish Flu killed 25 to 40 million in 1 year (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).
- Influenza now kills about 250,000 to 500,000 worldwide each year.
- The Black Death of 1347 to 1352 killed 25 million in Europe over 5 years (estimate of 25 to 50% of Europe, Asia, र Africa - world population was 500 million).
नयां रोगहरु र pandemics[सम्पादन गर्ने]
In some cases, a microorganism र its host live in reasonable harmony. Such is the case for many tropical viruses र the insects, monkeys, or other animals in which they have lived र reproduced for thousands or millions of years. Because the microbes र their hosts have co-evolved together, the hosts have gradually become resistant to the microorganisms. But when a microbe jumps from a long-time animal host to a human being, it may cease being a harmless parasite and—simply because it is new to the human species—become a pathogen. (See infection).
With most new infectious diseases, some human action is involved, changing the environment so that an existing microbe can take up residence in a new ecological niche. Once that happens, a pathogen that had been confined to a remote habitat appears in a new or wider region, or a microbe that had infected only animals suddenly begins causing human रोग.
Several human activities have led to the emergence र spread of new diseases:
- Encroachment on wildlife habitats. The construction of new villages र housing developments in rural areas brings people into contact with animals--and the microbes they harbor.
- Changes in agriculture. The introduction of new crops attracts new crop pests र the microbes they carry to farming communities, exposing people to unfamiliar diseases.
- Destroying rain forests. As tropical countries make use of their rain forests, building roads through forests र clearing areas for settlement or commercial ventures, people encounter insects र other animals harboring unknown microorganisms.
- Uncontrolled urbanization. The rapid growth of cities in many developing countries concentrates large numbers of people in crowded areas with poor sanitation, which foster the transmission of contagious diseases.
- Modern transport. Ships र other cargo carriers often harbor unintended "passengers," such as insects र rats, that can spread diseases to faraway destinations.
- High-speed globe-trotting. With international jet-airplane travel, people infected with a new रोग can carry the रोग to the far side of the world before their first symptoms appear.
The relationship between virulence र transmission is complex, र has important consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen. If a रोग is rapidly fatal, the host may die before the microbe can get passed along to another host. However, this cost may be overwhelmed by the short term benefit of higher infectiousness if transmission is linked to virulence, as it is for instance in the case of cholera (the explosive diarrhoea aids the bacterium in finding new hosts) or many respiratory infections (sneezing, coughing etc create infectious aerosols). Since it takes time for a microbe र a new host species to co-evolve an emerging pathogen may hit its earliest victims especially hard. It is usually in the first wave of a new रोग that death rates are highest.
Diagnosis र therapy[सम्पादन गर्ने]
Diagnosis is initially by medical history र physical examination, र imaging (such as X-rays), but the principal tool in infectious रोग is the microbiological culture. In a culture, a growth medium is provided for a particular agent. After inoculation of a specimen of diseased fluid or tissue onto the medium, it is determined whether bacterial growth occurs. This works for a number of bacteria, for example Staphylococcus or Streptococcus.
Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example the above-mentioned Treponema pallidum र most viruses. The first serological markers were developed to diagnose syphilis (the Wassermann test, later replaced by the VDRL र TPHA tests). Serology involves detecting the antibodies against an infectious agent in the patient's blood. In immunocompromised patients (e.g. AIDS), serology can be troublesome, because the antibody reaction is blunted.
A more recent development is direct detection of viral proteins and/or DNA in blood or secretions. This can be done by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), involving the amplification of viral DNA र its subsequent detection with anti-DNA probes.
Infectious रोगको बर्गिकरण[सम्पादन गर्ने]
One way of proving that a given रोग is "infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (Robert Koch), which demand that the infectious agent is identified in patients र not in controls, र that patients who contract the agent also develop the रोग. These postulates were tried र tested in the discovery of Mycobacteria as the cause for tuberculosis. Often, it is not possible to meet some of the criteria, even in diseases that are quite clearly infectious. For example, Treponema pallidum, the causative spirochete of syphilis, cannot be cultured in vitro - however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes].
Epidemiology is another important tool used to study रोग in a population. For infectious diseases it helps to determine if a रोग outbreak is sporadic (occasional occurrence), endemic (regular cases often occurring in a region), epidemic (an unusually high number of cases in a region), or pandemic (a global epidemic).
When a culture has proven to be positive, the sensitivity (or, conversely, the antibiotic resistance) of an agent can be determined by exposing it to test doses of antibiotic. This way, the microbiologist determines how sensitive the target bacterium is to a certain antibiotic. This is usually reported as being: Sensitive, Intermediate or Resistant. The antibiogram can then be used to determine optimal therapy for the patient. This can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics र lead to a decrease in antibiotic resistance.
The work of an infectiologist[सम्पादन गर्ने]
Doctors who specialise in the medical treatment of infectious रोग are called infectiologists or infectious रोग specialists. Generally, infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians or internal medicine specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated by the internist or the pulmonologist (lung physician).
The services of the infectious रोग team are called for when:
- The रोग has not been definitively diagnosed after an initial workup
- The patient is immunocompromised (for example, in AIDS or after chemotherapy);
- The infectious agent is of an uncommon nature (e.g. tropical रोगहरु);
- The रोग has not responded to first line antibiotics;
- The disease might be dangerous to other patients, र the patient might have to be isolated.
Louis Pasteur proved beyond doubt that certain diseases can be caused by infectious agents, र developed a vaccine for rabies.
यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्।[सम्पादन गर्ने]
- List of infectious diseases
- Copenhagen Consensus
- Important publications in infectious diseae
- Big killer
- Mandell's Principles र Practices of Infection Diseases or this site
- Manson's Tropical Diseases
- Control of Communicable Diseases Manual edited by James B. Chin, APHA, 2000
- Encyclopedia of public health edited by Lester Breslow, Macmillan Reference 2002
- Table: The World Health Report - 2004 Annex Table 2 र 1995 Table 5
- IDsociety - The Infectious Disease Society of America
- GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases र Epidemiology Network
- EPIDEMIca - A weblog about infectious diseases.
- When Insects Spread Disease, discusses problem र offers tips for prevention