मानव अधिकार (अङ्ग्रेजीमा human right, ह्युमन राइट्स) यस्तो अधिकारहरू हो, जुन सबै मान्छेले केबल मानव भएको नाताले पाँउनु पर्दछ। यी अधिकारहरू विश्वव्यापी हुन् त्यसैले प्रत्यक मानिसले पाउनु। मान्छेको जात, धर्म, सम्प्रदाय, राष्ट्रियता, उमेर, लिङ्ग, राजनैतिक विचार, ज्ञान, अपाङ्गता, लैङ्गिक झुकाव, लैङ्गिक परिचय, आदि जेसुकै भएपनि फरक पर्दैन। प्रत्येक मानिसले मानव अधिकार पाउनु पर्छ।
मानव अधिकारको इतिहास [सम्पादन गर्ने]
The idea of human rights comes from some ideas that are found in religions. Many religions have laws or rules about how people should act toward other people. These rules are a way of protecting peoples' human rights. The idea of human rights र the word human rights is not in old books from religions. But some of the rules from religions made people think about the idea of human rights. These also made people think that it was moral to treat people the right way.
In the 16th century people started thinking that people had the right to choose their religion र their leaders. This sort of thinking was important in the English civil war After the war the Philosopher John Locke argued that people should have these rights र was one of the first people to call them human rights. These ideas were also important in the Americain revolution र the French revolution in the 18th century
In the 19th century जन स्ट्युवार्ट मिल was an important philosopher who thought about human rights. He said that a person should be able to control अफ्नो शरीर र mind. He talked about three special ideas:
- freedom of speech (being able to say what you want)
- freedom of assembly (being able to meet with others)
- freedom to do what you wish if it does not harm others (even if it is something other people think is bad)
गेओर्ग हेगल was also an important philosopher. He talked about the idea of free will. He also talked about what makes a person free. He said that a person has to be able to have certain relations with other people to have true freedom. A person has to be able to:
- own property
- make contracts with other people
- make moral promises to people
- live with family
- get protection from laws
- have a voice in उनका government
मानव अधिकार सिद्धान्त [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Human rights is an idea or principle. This means it is a concept that people talk about, think about, र believe.
There are many reasons for the principle for human rights:
- Natural law is the idea that there are some true ideas that are here because of the way the natural world is. This also is a religious idea. We also talk about natural law is the law made by God.
- Science shows reasons we have human rights. Biologists say that the reason we feel that human rights are good is because we evolved this way. If an organism is good to other organisms, most of the time both organisms live better.
- Political philosophy also gives reasons for human rights. If all people are treated fairly र good, there will be less fights in society. This is better for all people.
मानव अधिकार कानून [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Because people believe that human rights are important, we have made laws that make certain that people have human rights. These laws say that governments cannot take away people's human rights. These laws punish people if they take away other people's human rights.
Some important political organizations have made statements about human rights. These are not laws, but are also important. If groups or countries do not follow these statements, people say they are very bad. If groups or countries do not follow these statements, people may not talk with them, do business with them, or help them.
सन् १९४८मा संयुक्त राष्ट्र सङ्घबाट मानव अधिकार विश्वव्यापी घोषणा गरियो। This is a very important statement. It says what the United Nations believe are human rights. It is not a law, but is the basis on which two important agreements are written:
- The International Covenant on Civil र Political Rights
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social, र Cultural Rights
These are United Nations human rights Covenants. These are agreements between people or countries. The countries who sign these two covenants say they will do what the covenant says.
मानव अधिकारको सूची [सम्पादन गर्ने]
सबैजना आधारभुत मानव अधिकारहरू के के हुन भन्नेमा एकमत छैनन्। यो सूचीमा केही अत्याबस्यक मध्येका छन्:
- आफ्नै निम्ति काम गर्न पाउनु पर्ने (दास हुन नपर्ने)
- सम्पति माथिको अधिकार
- बोल्ने स्वतन्त्रता
- ज्यानको सुरक्षा
- Safety from violence
- Protection from the law
- Not being arrested unless you have committed a crime
- Having a fair trial
- To be seen as innocent (not guilty) even if you are arrested until you are found to be guilty by a fair court
- कुनै देशको नागरिक हुन पाउनु
- To seek asylum if your country treats you badly
- मनपरेकोलाई बिबाह गर्न पाउनु
- स्वतन्त्र विचार
- To believe र practice the religion you want
- To peacefully protest (speak against) a सरकार or group
- To a basic standard of living (food, shelter, clothing, etc.)
- Health care (medical care)
मानव अधिकार उल्लङ्घन [सम्पादन गर्ने]
Abuse means to hurt someone very badly. Human rights abuses are when someone is hurt in a way that violates (goes against) उनका human rights. Human rights abuses are also called human rights violations.
मानव अधिकार उल्लङ्घनका उदाहरणहरू:
- Putting a person in jail because they said that the president गरिरहेको छ bad things
- Taking a person's home because they are from a different country
- Not letting someone who is a citizen of a country vote because she is a woman
- Violence toward someone because he is a Muslim
Many people, groups, र countries think protecting human rights are very important. But not everyone in the world believes in human rights. If these people have political power they can hurt many people. Even if these people have no political power they can be violent to other people. So there are many people who work to protect everyones human rights. Some of these are सरकारी groups. Some of them are not with any government. They are sometimes called Human Rights Groups.
बाह्य सम्बन्ध [सम्पादन गर्ने]
जानकारी [सम्पादन गर्ने]
मानव अधिकारवादी संस्थान [सम्पादन गर्ने]
कुनै महत्त्वपूर्ण मानव अधिकारवादी संस्थान :-