|यो एउटा अनाथ (एक्लो) पृष्ठको रुपमा रहेको छ, यो पृष्ठ कुनै पनि पृष्ठसित जोडिएको छैन अथवा एक-दुईवटा लेखहरूसँग मात्र जोडिएको हुन सक्छ। कृपया सम्बन्धित लेखहरूलाई; यस पृष्ठसित लिङ्क जोड़्न सहायता गर्नुहोस् उपयोगी जानकारी यहाँ उपलब्ध हुनसक्छ। (सेप्टेम्बर २०११)|
|Part of a series on|
एशियाका बिभिन्न देशहरूमा रहेका सांस्कृतीक, सामाजिक व्यवस्था तथा दार्शनलाई समेटेर भन्दा पूर्वीय संसार अथवा पूर्वीय सभ्यता भन्ने गरिन्छ। यसमा मुख्य गरेर भारतीय तथा चिनीया सभ्यताको ठूलो प्रभाव रहेको पाइन्छ।
"पूर्वको धारणा"[सम्पादन गर्ने]
पूर्व तथा पश्चिमको विभाजन युरोपेली सांस्कृतिक इतिहासको उपज हो र यसले युरोपको क्रिश्चियन समुदाय र पूर्वमा रहेका अन्य परदेशीहरूलाई छुट्याउने गर्दछ। अमेरिका तथा अफ्रीकाको सम्पूर्ण भाग पत्ता लाग्नु भन्दा पहिले सम्म युरोपेलीहरूलाई उत्तरी अफ्रिका र मध्यपूर्वका इस्लामीक देशहरूको बारेमा धेरै मात्रामा र चीन तथा भारतको बारेमा निकै थोरै मात्रामा थाहा थियो। मध्य युगमा क्रिश्चियन तथा मुसलमानहरू बिचको युद्धले पूर्व तथा पश्चिमको स्पस्ट बिभाजन बनायो। युरोपेलीहरूले अमेरिका पत्ता लगाईसकेपछि पूर्व तथा पश्चिम बिचको विभाजन विश्वब्यापी हुन पुग्यो। पूर्वी अथवा ईण्डियन शब्दहरू जातीय, धार्मीक तथा सांस्कृतिक विभेद जनाउनको लागि प्रयोग गरियो। भारतमा मुसलमान धर्म आईपुग्नु भन्दा पहिले भारतीय उपमहाद्वीपका मानिसहरूलाई पहिले देखिनै हिन्दू भनेर चिनिने गर्थ्यो र उक्त उपमहाद्वीप हिन्दूस्तान अथवा भारतको नामले चिनिन्थ्यो। शीत युद्धको समयमा पूर्वी संसार भनरे पूर्वी युरोप तथा अरू कम्युनिस्ट सासन भएका एशियाली देशहरूलाई जनाउने गर्दथ्यो भने पश्चिमी संसार भनेर संयुक्त राज्य अमेराका लगायत नेटो सदस्य पश्चिमी युरोपेली देशहरू जनाउने गर्थ्यो।
एक अर्को धारणा सुदूर पूर्व भन्ने छ जसले निकै मिल्दोजुल्दो धर्म तथा संस्कृति बोकेका पूर्वी एशियाली देशहरूलाई जनाउने गर्दछ। यी सम्पूर्ण देशहरूमा पूर्वीय दर्शन, कला, साहित्य तथा चालचलनहरूको ठूलो प्रभाव देख्न सकिन्छ। यसमा बौद्ध तथा हिन्दू धर्मको पनि धेरै हद सम्म प्रभाव भेटिन्छ।
धारणाको कमजोरी[सम्पादन गर्ने]
Currently terms such as Western, Near East (or Middle East) र Far East are commonly used to distinguish different cultural spheres, based on the standard two-dimensional layout of the world-map, which has the Americas at the far left (West), Europe र Africa in the middle, र Asia to the right (East). This arrangement is arbitrary because the Earth is round, rather than flat (however this model does ensure that land regions are concentrated in the centre without Eurasia being split in two); therefore, by going west, one will eventually arrive in the east, र when one goes east, one will eventually arrive in the west, provided one keeps going long enough. This is true no matter where one is on the globe's surface (except the Poles, where all directions are either north or south). Because of this, the East/West division has been criticized for being Eurocentric, however the notional 'central-point' between East र West would be to the east of Europe itself. Some countries, in particular Russia, do not fit neatly into this opposition.
While Western Orientalist traditions included both Islamic र further Eastern cultures under the generic heading of "the East", the common Abrahamic traditions of Islam र Christianity mean that a case can be made that both Islam र Christianity together form a different cultural sphere from countries further to the East in which the concept of Dharma plays a far more important role than that of an authoritative God. In recent years the concept of "Eastern culture" has increasingly become restricted to East Asian traditions. However, the existence of Islam र Christianity as powerful forces in countries such as Indonesia र the Philippines makes this usage problematic.
पूर्वीय संस्कृतिको आधार[सम्पादन गर्ने]
Eastern culture has developed many themes र traditions. Some important ones are:
- Buddhism - contributed to a concept of self wherein the importance of ego was diminished, र that suffering was regarded as an accepted part of life. The Chinese literati traditionally despised Buddhism.
- Confucianism - social hierarchy where position is based upon merit as determined through the imperial examination system. This social hierarchy promoted respect for elders र authority, र valued harmony within family.
- Hinduism - the oldest surviving religion, which contributed the concept of Dharma र served as the origin of the Dharmic religions
- Islam - the majority of the world Muslim population have always lived in Asia, due to the influence of the Islamic civilization
- Martial arts
- Taoism - concepts of good र bad energy, the connectedness of mind र body र nature, etc.
- "Oriental Medicine" - reflexology, acupuncture, herbal medicine, etc.
- Zoroastrianism - the oldest surviving monotheistic religion that was practiced in ancient Persia
पूर्वीय संस्कृतिको प्रगती[सम्पादन गर्ने]
It was China that invented paper, compass, gunpowder र printing (the Four Great Inventions of ancient China) that had profound effects on civilizations worldwide. Among the technological accomplishments of China were early seismological detectors, dry docks, sliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the raised-relief map, the propeller, र the crossbow. Chinese astronomers were also among the first to record observations of a supernova. It was eastern culture that first invented the abacus, planetarium, book, ink, first cannon, bomb (using gunpowder), nest cart, spaghetti, fireworks, brandy, whiskey, cards, Paper money, saddle, toothbrush,  . The blue light-emitting diode was invented in Japan. In medicine, the elixir formulation, herbal medicine, craniotomy, र acupuncture are all attributed to the East. It was Easterners who first discovered methamphetamine, adrenaline, sodium glutamate, र Vitamin B1.
Four of the world's major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism र Sikhism originated in India. Hinduism, the successor of the ancient Vedic religion, is considered to be the world's oldest existing religion. Though Buddhism originated in India, it is one of the most practiced religions in East Asia र South East Asia र helped spread Indian philosophical theories like Karma र Dharma to other parts of Asia. Yoga, a family of ancient spiritual practices, originated in India र is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. Indian thinkers made great work र effort in mathematics among others र Indian mathematics described र theorized many mathematical concepts र applications. Indians first invented the decimal notation that is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,...etc.
India is home to some of the greatest र some of the earliest inventions in mathematical concepts, astronomy, physics, medicine, र applications. It is now generally accepted that India was the birth place of several mathematical concepts, including zero, the decimal system, algebra, algorithm, square root र cube root. It was Indians who theorized about gravity, determining sun is a star among others. Aryabhatta is considered to be the first mathematician to use letters of the alphabet to denote unknown quantities र to conclude the pi is an irrational number. Other Indian mathematicians, such as Brahmagupta र Bhaskara too made significant contributions to field of mathematics. Acharya Sushruta, author of Sushruta Samhita, is believed to be the first person to carry out a surgery. Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medical practice, depicts the achievements Indians had made in the field of medical science. The most commonly held view is that Chess originated in India. For instance Āryabhaṭa is widely regarded as one of the famous र influential thinkers, mathematicians र astronomers who for instance described the solar eclipse, who first described the reason for movement of stars, who first calculated the circumference of the earth with only 0.2% difference from the current prediction.