ढाँचा:Infobox carbon

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
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Carbon,  6C
Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale.jpg
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of Carbon
सामान्य गुणहरू
नाम, संकेतcarbon, C
उच्चारण/ˈkɑrbən/
उपस्थितिclear (diamond) & black (graphite)
पेरियोडिक टेबलमा Carbon
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
आणविक संख्या6
मानक आणविक भार12.0107(8)
तत्वको श्रेणीnonmetal
समुह, ब्लकgroup 14 (carbon group), p-block
पेरियोडperiod 2
इलेक्ट्रोन वितरण1s2 2s2 2p2 or [He] 2s2 2p2
प्रति सेल2,4
भौतिक गुणहरू
अवस्थाSolid
उर्ध्वपातन विन्दु3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t.amorphous:[१] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
ट्रिपल विन्दु4600 K, ​10800[२][३] kPa
फ्युजनको ताप117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
मोलार ताप क्षमता8.517(graphite),
6.155(diamond) J·mol−1·K−1
आणविक गुणहरू
अक्सिडेसन अवस्थाहरू4, 3 [४], 2, 1 [५], 0, -1, -2, -3, -4[६]
इलेक्ट्रो निगेटिभिटीPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
(more)
कोभ्यालेन्ट अर्धव्यास77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
भ्यान डर वाल अर्धव्यास170 pm
विविध
Speed of sound thin rod, at 20 °C18350 (diamond) m·s−1
थर्मल एक्सपान्सन0.8 (diamond) [७] µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)
थर्मल कन्डक्टिभिटी119-165 (graphite)
900-2300 (diamond) W·m−1·K−1
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[८]
Young's modulus1050 (diamond) [७] GPa
Shear modulus478 (diamond) [७] GPa
Bulk modulus442 (diamond) [७] GPa
Poisson ratio0.1 (diamond) [७]
Mohs hardness1-2 (Graphite)
10 (Diamond)
CAS Registry Number7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP

15

12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β- 0.156 14N
· सन्दर्भ सामाग्रीहरू

References

  1. Lide, D. R., सं (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th संस्करण). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. . 
  2. Haaland, D (१९७६), "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon", Carbon 14: 357, डिओआई:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5 
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (२००५), "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)", Carbon 43: 1115, डिओआई:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027 
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP", अन्तिम पहुँच २००७-१२-०६ 
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical", अन्तिम पहुँच २००७-१२-०६ 
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds", अन्तिम पहुँच २००७-१२-०६ 
  7. ७.० ७.१ ७.२ ७.३ ७.४ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.