मादक पदार्थ

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
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सन् २००४को विश्व भरी मादक पदार्थ सेवन गरेको तथ्यांक (१५ भन्दा माथि)

मादक पदार्थ वा अल्कोहलयुक्त पेय पदार्थ इथानोल नामक इथाइल अल्कोहल युक्त पेय पदार्थ हो ।

प्रकार[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Grains Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, shōchū (mugijōchū) (Japan)
rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), Korn (Germany)
corn chicha, corn beer, tesguino Bourbon whiskey; and vodka (rarely)
sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China).
wheat wheat beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka, wheat whisky, weizenkorn (Germany)
rice beer, brem (Bali), huangjiu and choujiu (China), Ruou gao (Vietnam), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) aila (Nepal), rice baijiu (China), shōchū (komejōchū) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea)
millet millet beer (Sub-Saharan Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet), boza (the Balkans, Turkey)
buckwheat shōchū (sobajōchū) (Japan)
Fruit juice Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of grapes, wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Peru, Chile), (Grozdova) Rakia (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), törkölypálinka (Hungary)
juice of apples cider (U.S.: "hard cider"), Apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider
juice of pears perry, or pear cider; poiré (France) Poire Williams, pear brandy, Eau-de-vie (France), pálinka (Hungary), Krushova rakia / Krushevitsa (Bulgaria)
juice of plums plum wine slivovitz, țuică, umeshu, pálinka, Slivova rakia / Slivovitsa (Bulgaria)
juice of apricots Kaisieva rakia (Bulgaria)
juice of pineapples tepache (Mexico), Pineapple Wine (Hawaii)
junipers borovička (Slovakia)
bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Vietnam), Cauim (Kuna Indians of Panama), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo)
gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China)
coconut Toddy (Sri Lanka, India) arrack, lambanog (Sri Lanka, India, Philippines)
ginger with sugar, ginger with raisins ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine
Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China)
pomace pomace wine Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/France/Italy), tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), orujo (Spain), zivania (Cyprus), aguardente (Portugal), tescovină (Romania), Arak (Iraq)
Vegetables Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
cassava

Saliva-fermented beverages:

  • Cauim
  • chicha: Throughout the Amazon Basin, including the interiors of Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil, chicha is made most often with cassava). in Peruvian Amazonia chichia is known as masato.
  • kasiri (Sub-Saharan Africa)
  • nihamanchi (South America) aka nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru)
  • Parakari (Guyana)
  • Sakurá (Brazil, Surinam)
tiquira (Brazil)
juice of ginger root ginger beer (Botswana)
potato potato beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka (Poland and Germany), akvavit (Scandinavia), poitín (poteen) (Ireland)
sweet potato shōchū (imojōchū) (Japan), soju (Korea)
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla
Other ingredients Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (Sub-Saharan Africa), toddy (Indian subcontinent)
sap of Arenga pinnata, Coconut, Borassus flabellifer Tuak (Indonesia) Arrack
honey mead, horilka (Ukraine), tej (Ethiopia) distilled mead (mead brandy or honey brandy)
milk kumis, kefir, blaand arkhi (Mongolia)
sugar kilju and mead or sima (Finland) shōchū (kokutō shōchū): made from brown sugar (Japan)

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