सरकार

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

सरकार मानिसहरूको समुह हो जो सँग कानून बमोजिम कुनै क्षेत्र भित्र अधिकार हुन्छ। त्यस्तो क्षेत्र भन्नाले देश, राज्य वा प्रान्त अथवा अरु कुनै नाम भएको क्षेत्रलाई जनाउँछ।

  • सरकारले कानून बनाउने, कर असुल्ने र पैसा छाप्नेजस्ता कामहरू गर्दछ।
  • सरकारसँग न्याय प्रणाली हुन्छ, जसले कानूनको आधारमा कसलाई सजाय दिने, कसलाई नदिने निर्णय गर्दछ।
  • सरकारसँग प्रहरीहरू हुन्छन् जसले कानून लागु गराउँदछन।
  • सरकारले दूतहरूको माध्यमबाट अन्य देशका सरकारहरूसँग सम्पर्क राख्दछ, बाणिज्य सहमति गर्दछ, युद्धलाई सम्भब भएसम्म टार्दछ अनि कला, संस्कृति वा सामाजिक अनुभव र ज्ञानको आदान-प्रदान गर्दछ।
  • सरकारसँग सैनिक हुन्छ जसले देशको रक्षा गर्दछन्।

सरकारका नेता र त्यसका सल्लाहकारहरूलाई प्रशासन भनिन्छ।

सरकारका प्रकारहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

लोकतन्त्र

  • पश्चिमा देशहरूमा सबैभन्दा बढी रहेको ब्यबस्था लोकतन्त्र हो। लोकतन्त्रमा जनताहरूले आफुखुसी राजनैतिक समूह बनाउन र त्यस्ता समूहमा सामेल हुन पाँउछन्। सरकार कसरी चलाउने भन्ने बारेमा बिभिन्न राजनैतिक समूहहरूका भिन्न बिचार हुन सक्दछन्। त्यस्ता समूहहरूले संसद वा कङ्ग्रेसमा आफ्ना प्रतिनिधिको चयन गर्न पाउँछन्।

राजतन्त्र

  • राजतन्त्रमा राजा वा रानीले राज्य गर्दछन्। राजतन्त्र खासगरि २ किसिमका हुन्छन्, सम्बैधानिक र पूर्ण राजतन्त्र। पूर्ण राजतन्त्रमा शासकसँग असिमित अधिकार हुन्छ भने सम्बैधानिक राजतन्त्रमा शासकको अधिकारको सिमा संविद्यान बमोजिम हुन्छ।

तानाशाही

  • Under dictatorship, the सरकार is run by one person. This person may or may not be elected, but does not receive their power from their family, like under Monarchy. Dictatorship may be good or bad, depending on the leader. Many people dislike dictatorship because it has no freedom from the government.

Oligarchy

  • An oligarchy is a सरकार ruled by a small group of powerful individuals . These people may divide power equally or not equally. An oligarchy is different then a true democracy because very few people are given the chance to change things. An oligarchy does not have to be hereditary or passed down from father to son. An oligarchy does not have one clear ruler but several powerful people. Often an oligarchy describes the real way another सरकार is.

इतिहाँस र Theory of Government[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The simplest idea of सरकार is those who सासन over जनताजमीन. This may be as small as a community with some sort of board that looks after the goings on of those who live within it or something a little larger like a गाउं or as big as a continent (like Australia). Those people who rule the land can allow others to own it. It is a deed by सरकार that gives this right in the way that laws describe. Some think they have the right to hold land without सरकार permission. This view is called उदारबाद. Others think they can do so together as a group with others if they live in शान्ति, without government. This view is called anarchism.

Almost every place on संसार is connected to one र only one government. Places without सरकार are where people follow traditions instead of सरकार rules, small border disputed areas र the continent of Antarctica, because almost no people live there. For every place on Earth there is a सरकार that claims sovereign control over it. The word "sovereign" is old र means "control by a राजा" (sovereign). Governments of villages, cities, counties र other communities are also subordinate to the सरकार of the state or province where they exist, र then to that of the country.

It is from Kings र feudalism that modern governments र nation-states came. The capital of a country, for instance, is where the King kept उनका assets. From this we get the modern idea of capital in economics. A सरकार is said to regulate trade as well as to rule over land.

Governments also control people र decide things about what morality to accept or punish. In very many countries, there are strict rules about sexual intercoursedrugs that are part of law र offenders are punished for disobeying them.

Tax is how सरकार is paid for in most countries. People who buy, sell, import, invest, own a house or land, or earn money are made to pay some of the money to a government.

There are many theories of how to organize सरकार better. These are called theories of civics. Because सरकार is run by people who can be greedy, many people think leaders must be elected by some kind of democracy. That way, if सरकार does not act nice, they can be replaced in the next election. Still many countries' governments are not a democracy but other forms in which only a few people have power.

There are many theories of how to run a सरकार better, र keep people from hurting each other. These theories are part of politics. No matter how a सरकार is chosen, it must do politics to keep power.

There are many ideas about how to settle a dispute without needing force or violence but by talking र trusting. This is part of ethics. When religion convinces people not to fight or rely on government, we say an ethical tradition is at work. Most law comes from traditions like that. The Ten Commandments is one group of laws like that.