दलाई लामा

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
(दलाइ लामा बाट पठाईएको)
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्
दलाई लामा
1st Dalai Lama.jpg
शासनकाल 1391–1474
तिब्बती ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་
विली अनुवाद taa la'i bla ma
उच्चारण [taːlɛː lama]
टीएचडीएल दलाई लामा
राजकिय घर प्रथम दलाई लामा / टक्ला

दलाई लामा तिब्बती बौद्ध धर्मगुरू हुन्। तिब्बत चीनको अधिनमा हुनुपुर्व दलाई लामा तिब्बतका शासक हुने गर्थे।

इतिहास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

मंगोलियन भाषामा दलाईको अर्थ समुन्द्र र लामाको अर्थ गुरू हुन्छ। दलाई लामाको अर्थ अध्यात्मिक गुरू भन्ने लाग्छ। [१] दलाई लामाको पद्वी पहिलो पटक मंगोलियाका शासक अल्तान खानले १५७८मा सोनाम ग्यास्तोलाई प्रयोग गरेका थिए।. त्यसपछिका उनका उत्तराधिकारीहरूले यो पदवी प्रयोग गर्दै आए।[२]

दलाई लामाका उत्तराधिकारीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The title "Dalai Lama" is presently granted to each of the spiritual leader's successive incarnations (for example, The १४th Dalai Lama's next incarnation will hold the title "the १५th Dalai Lama").

Upon the death of the Dalai Lama, उनका monks institute a search for the Lama's reincarnation, or yangsi (yang srid), a small child. Familiarity with the possessions of the previous Dalai Lama is considered the main sign of the reincarnation. The search for the reincarnation typically requires a few years. The reincarnation is then brought to Lhasa to be trained by the other Lamas.

दलाई लामाको भविष्य[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Despite its officially secular stance, the सरकार of the People's Republic of China has claimed the power to approve the naming of high reincarnations in Tibet. This decision cites a precedent set by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, who instituted a system of selecting the Dalai Lama र the Panchen Lama by means of a lottery which utilised a golden urn with names wrapped in barley balls. Controversially, this precedent was called upon by the PRC to name their own Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama र the majority of Tibetan Buddhists in exile do not regard this to be the legitimate Panchen Lama. The Dalai Lama has recognized a different child, Gendan Choekyi Nyima, as the reincarnated Panchen Lama. This child and his family have been taken into 'protective custody' according to the PRC, र all attempts by members of the EU parliament र US सरकार to garner guarantees of the families safety have been denied by the PRC. There is some speculation that with the death of the current Dalai Lama, the People's Republic of China will attempt to direct the selection of a successor, using the authority of their chosen Panchen Lama.

The current Dalai Lama has repeatedly stated that he will never be reborn inside territory controlled by the People's Republic of China[३], र has occasionally suggested that he might choose to be the last Dalai Lama by not being reborn at all. However, he has also stated that the purpose of उनका repeated incarnations is to continue unfinished work and, as such, if the situation in Tibet remains unchanged, it is very likely that he will be reborn to finish उनका work.[४] Additionally, in the draft constitution of future Tibet, the institution of the Dalai Lama can be revoked at any time by a democratic majority vote of two-thirds of the Assembly. The १४th Dalai Lama has stated, "Personally, I feel the institution of the Dalai Lama has served its purpose."[४]

बासस्थान[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Starting with the 5th Dalai Lama र until the 14th Dalai Lama's flight into exile in 1959, the Dalai Lamas resided during winter at the Potala Palace, र in the summer at the Norbulingka palace र park. Both residences are located in Lhasa, Tibet, approximately 3 km apart. In 1959, subsequent to the then ongoing Chinese occupation of Tibet, the 14th Dalai Lama sought refuge within India. The then Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru was instrumental in granting safe refuge to the Dalai Lama र उनका fellow Tibetans. The Dalai Lama has since been in refuge in धर्मशाला, in the state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India, where the Central Tibetan Administration (The Tibetan Government in Exile) is also established. Tibetan refugees have constructed र opened many schools र Buddhist temples[तथ्य वांछित] in Dharamsala.

दलाई लामाहरूको सुची[सम्पादन गर्ने]

अहिलेसम्म १४ वटा दलाई लामाहरू भएका छन्।

Name Lifespan Reign Tibetan/Wylie PRC transcription Other English spelling(s)
1. Gendun Drup 1391–1474 ?[५] དྒེ་འདུན་འགྲུབ་
dge ‘dun ‘grub
Gêdün Chub Gedun Drub, Gedün Drup, Gendun Drup
२. Gendun Gyatso १४७५–१५४१ ?[५] དགེ་འདུན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
dge ‘dun rgya mtsho
Gêdün Gyaco Gedün Gyatso, Gendün Gyatso
३. Sonam Gyatso १५४३–१५८८ १५७८–१५८८ བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
bsod nams rgya mtsho
Soinam Gyaco Sönam Gyatso
४. Yonten Gyatso १५८९–१६१६ ? ཡོན་ཏན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
yon tan rgya mtsho
Yoindain Gyaco Yontan Gyatso
५. Lobsang Gyatso १६१७–१६८२ १६४२–१६८२ བློ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
blo bzang rgya mtsho
Lobsang Gyaco Lobzang Gyatso, Lopsang Gyatso
६. Tsangyang Gyatso १६८३–१७०६ ?–१७०६ ཚང་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
tshang dbyangs rgya mtsho
Cangyang Gyaco
७. Kelzang Gyatso १७०८–१७५७ १७५१–१७५७ བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
bskal bzang rgya mtsho
Gaisang Gyaco Kelsang Gyatso, Kalsang Gyatso
८. Jamphel Gyatso १७५८–१८०४ १७८६–१८०४ བྱམས་སྤེལ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
byams spel rgya mtsho
Qambê Gyaco Jampel Gyatso, Jampal Gyatso
९. Lungtok Gyatso १८०६–१८१५ (१८०८–१८१५)[५] ལུང་རྟོགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
lung rtogs rgya mtsho
Lungdog Gyaco Lungtog Gyatso
१०. Tsultrim Gyatso १८१६–१८३७ ? ཚུལ་ཁྲིམ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
tshul khrim rgya mtsho
Cüchim Gyaco Tshültrim Gyatso
११. Khendrup Gyatso १८३८–१८५६ १८४४–१८५६ མཁས་གྲུབ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
mkhas grub rgya mtsho
Kaichub Gyaco Kedrub Gyatso
१२. Trinley Gyatso १८५७–१८७५ ? འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
‘phrin las rgya mtsho
Chinlai Gyaco Trinle Gyatso
१३. Thubten Gyatso १८७६–१९३३ ? ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་
thub bstan rgya mtsho
Tubdain Gyaco Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso
१४. Tenzin Gyatso १९३५–present १९५०–present
(currently in exile)
bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho
Dainzin Gyaco
Throne awaiting Dalai Lama's return. Summer residence of 13th Dalai Lama, Nechung, Tibet.

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नोट[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. Art Hughes. "The Thirteen Previous Dalai Lamas", Part of MPR's special report, Ocean of Wisdom: The Dalai Lama's Visit, Minnesota Public Radio, May 7, 2001.
  2. Parenti, Michael (2003). Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth.
  3. "Dalai's reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control", The Indian Express, Tibetan Government in Exile, 1999-07-06. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति:2007-01-27.
  4. ४.० ४.१ Questions & Answers, The Website of The Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ The title "Dalai Lama" was conferred posthumously to the first र second Dalai Lamas. The 9th Dalai Lama was officially enthroned, but never reigned.

सन्दर्भहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  • Yá Hánzhāng 牙含章: The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas (Dálài Lǎmá chuán 达赖喇嘛传; Beijing, Foreign Languages Press १९९३); ISBN ७-११९-०१२६७-३.

बाहिरी लिङ्कहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]