वार्तालाप:जिरेल जाति

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

Nepal is a mountainous country situated between India and China, the two nations of ancient civilizations in Asia. Here live different groups of people who cherish their own types of religions, cultures, traditions and languages. The traditions, cultures and languages cultivated and preserved by every group of people in Nepal, are the national properties of Nepalese. This article aims to give a short description about "Jirels".

    Jirels are the most interesting group of people in many ways. Like the Rais, Sunuwars, Limbus, Hayus and Surels, the Jirel people have many reasons to claim themselves that they are pure race and belong to the Kirant lineage originally. Although most people seem to be unfamiliar with them they have their own history to tell and write. This  being the case, the Jirel caste is a hidden one with its own independent existence.People who got quite a little knowledge about Jirels have become unsuccessful to understand them in reality.As a matter of fact, they have said and written many false things about Jirels.Some people believe that Jirels is not a pure race that it is the crossbreed of Sherpa and Sunuwar inferior to Sunuwars( Fournier 1974, Bista 1980). This is also ridculous indeed. They put this baseless supposition that a young Sunuwar fell in love with a Sherpa girl. Consequently, the Sherpa woman became pregnant and later she gave birth to a child. Unfortunately,the Sunuwar could not accept that poor child as his own because of the fear of being himself to be outcasted, so that the child and its generations ofterwards were called Jirels.
    Nothing some of the similarities including the physical structure which are found among Jirel, Sunuwar and Sherpa, they try to justify the Jirel people being the so-called admixture of Sunuwar and Sherpa. But they must be well aware of the fact that these people are not similar only phenotypically, they are also similar genotypically, because of belonging to the same Kirant (Mongoloid) stock.They have no other fact, on scientific basis or reasons to testify their opinion. In other words, this type of blind concept is nothing more than a myth which tries to spoil the true history of a particular group of a people in Nepal.Others have been even the Jirels are considered some what inferior to Sunuwars (Fournier 1974, Bista 1980). This is also ridiculous indeed. Those baseless and false assumptions, which were published in earliar publications, are discussed analytically in the chapter-2 "Origin" of this book.
  The Jirels belong to one of the main branch of Kirant tribe and having their own languages, religions, customs, cultures and fashions, they are proud to claim themselves to be Jirels. They are the proper dwellers(inhabitants) of eastern Nepal. They are quite simple, sweet speaking and hard working. They have small eyes, flattened nose, and little beard. Average height of them is 5.5 ft. Like other group of people, the Jirel people have also classified themselves into 12 major clans and 11 sub-clans, those clans are mentioned below:- 
        

major clans

Sub-clans

1 Thungba Garchiga 2 Deppa Jupude 3 Thabo Kyambole 4 Devlinga Neware 5 Thurbido Rarenje 6 Jupule Tumpule 7 Serba Tungule 8 Palpali Urbido 9 Mayokpa Chawe-Thungba 10 Chyaba Chawe-Serba 11 Gara Samba Chawe- Thabo 12 Chhungpate

Language:-

   The Jirels have equal faith in Buddhist and Hinduism. But, primarily, Jirel's actual religion is based on Trantrism(Animism). A priest called a "phombo" presides over and conducts the worship. They started retaining the use of 'Lama' in their religious acts and performance when one or two of the Jirels themselves were trained as 'Lamas' some three or four generations back.
   The persons acquiring 'Lama' educations first in Jirel society, were the late 'wonjule Jirel' and the late 'Gare Jirel', both of them the residents of ward no-9, kot in Jiri village development committee and from 'Devlinga' clans of Jirel. There were known as "Jetha Lama" and "Kanchha Lama" respectively. Their descendants are still safe-gaurding and perpetuating the legacy of Lama- tradition. The Jirels still use 'Phombo' in their birth and wedding ceremonies while 'Lamas' officiate at the last rites (death & funeral) and 'Brahmin' priests are used in other worships. The Jirels go to the Buddhist monastries to worship Lord Buddha and they also go to the Hindu temples in order to purify their mind and soul with religious deeds. Now-a-days, a very few Jirel families seem to follow "Christian" religion because they love freedom on religion. In this sense, the religious practice of the Jirels is an important example of good religious tolerance.

Festival:-

  Nepal is predominantly an agricultural nation where 93% of the total population depend on agriculture ot maintain the livelihood. Jirels also depend on agriculture. So farming is their main occupation. Their major productions include maize, millet, paddy, potato and wheat in addition to some vegetables and fruits. Cows, yaks, buffaloes, goats and sheeps are the cattle heads they keep. Most of them have little and unproductive land, so they pass a hard life. Modern agricultural facilities are still beyond their approach; still they are following the same conventional method in agriculture. Starvation and malnutrition are their main problem.
   A few of them go to India to join the Indian Army and some of them go there to work as wage earners. Some of the young Jirels have joined in millitary and police service of Nepal.
   Besides of these, they weave carpets and woolen coats (Lukuni) from the wool of local sheep and sell them.
   Since 1958, Swiss government established a project (JMDP), in co-ordination with HMG, Nepal at Jiri-Valley. The project has had some effect in helping to improve the conditions of Jirel people of that area. A number of Jirels have been trained as carpenters, stone cutters and builders while employed by the project. Some other also got the chances to work as wage earners in the project. The percentage of out- migration has been reduced due to this project. Besides these, Jiri school was also upgraded by the assistance of that project. The children of Jirel people have got the chances of education upto the secondary level in their locality. So they do not hesitate to say that if there were no received any education yet. Those who were already literate, they got office jobs too. Some of the Jirels do the construction works such in making roads and buildings . They also work as contractors but still, they are not much conscious about business. 

Occupation:-

  Nepal is predominantly an agricultural nation where 93% of the total population depend on agriculture ot maintain the livelihood. Jirels also depend on agriculture. So farming is their main occupation. Their major productions include maize, millet, paddy, potato and wheat in addition to some vegetables and fruits. Cows, yaks, buffaloes, goats and sheeps are the cattle heads they keep. Most of them have little and unproductive land, so they pass a hard life. Modern agricultural facilities are still beyond their approach; still they are following the same conventional method in agriculture. Starvation and malnutrition are their main problem.
   A few of them go to India to join the Indian Army and some of them go there to work as wage earners. Some of the young Jirels have joined in millitary and police service of Nepal.
   Besides of these, they weave carpets and woolen coats (Lukuni) from the wool of local sheep and sell them.
   Since 1958, Swiss government established a project (JMDP), in co-ordination with HMG, Nepal at Jiri-Valley. The project has had some effect in helping to improve the conditions of Jirel people of that area. A number of Jirels have been trained as carpenters, stone cutters and builders while employed by the project. Some other also got the chances to work as wage earners in the project. The percentage of out- migration has been reduced due to this project. Besides these, Jiri school was also upgraded by the assistance of that project. The children of Jirel people have got the chances of education upto the secondary level in their locality. So they do not hesitate to say that if there were no received any education yet. Those who were already literate, they got office jobs too. Some of the Jirels do the construction works such in making roads and buildings . They also work as contractors but still, they are not much conscious about business. 

Education:

  The education condition of the Jirels, among whom nearly 99% were illiterate in the past two decades, is not so much discouraging in the present. Since, many primary and lower secondary schools including some secondary ones have been opened in their villages, an encouraging educational awareness has developed among them, and consequently the literacy rate is gradually increasing. But it is very sad that the poverty of Jirels, still remains as an impedement to their desire to further educate their children. However, today the Jirel have been fortunate enough to have some doctors, overseers, agriculture officers, rangers, technicians- JT, JTA and various school supervisors and teachers.
   Up to the year 1990 A.D. (2047 B.S.), it was learnt from the result- sheet available from Jiri secondary school, Jiri Technical school, and Hanumanteshor secondary school that more than hundred Jirels have been passed the S.L.C.. Among them fifteen percent are girls. Not more than fifty Jirels have completed their intermediate level in different subjects like- Forestry, Agriculture Science, Education, Health and Arts. Some of them have completed their Bachelor degree level courses. Their number according to the record available is not more than ten. Among them is one Jirel lady who completed her graduation courses in medical science from USSR (Dr. Sarita Jirel). Upto now, not a single Jirel has attempted to study and complete Ph. D. level in any subject.
   These above facts make it clear that Jirel people are still in backward condition in education and it is only recently that they are struggling to enter an era of educational awakening. No doubt, the causes that why Jirels have fallen behind in education can be mentioned as social and political exploitation, poverty and the lack of schools near their community. 

Social & Political Status:-

  Jirels, peaceful and patient as they are, have a sense fo mutual friendship and co-operation. They maintain good relations with Brahmins, Kshetris and others in their community. In this sense, we can also say that their nature is characterised by their habit of honouring others and their sense of compassions.
       These people do not take so much interest in politics but still in the village development committees, where there are in majority, the post of chairman(PradhanPanch), vice-chairman(Upa-pradhanPanch), village assembly members and class organizational members are occupied by themselves. But they have not been able to hold a higher post in higher body than the village development committee (Panchayat). Before 1986(2043 B.S), no any Jirel people was elected in the post of ‘pradhan panch’ in Jiri-Valley, the Jirel’s native land, where there were being Jirels in majority too, but in the local election of 1986 A.D., Mr. Dhan bahadur Jirel(Deppa) was elected first ‘Pradhan Panch’ in the Jirel community. After general revolution of 1989 A.D., the political consciousness is gradually aroused among them. They were aligned into different political parties. In the local election of 1992 AD(2049 BS) , they have got success again to elect Jirel candidate Mr. Tanka bahadur Jirel(Serba) of Nepali congress in the chairman post of Jiri village development committee. However, the current electoral practices carried out on the basis of adult franchise, have gone long way towards arousing political consciousness among Jirel people.


                                   By suji jirel....Tasita

-Krish Dulal ०६:४३, २३ अक्टोबर २०११ (युटिसी(UTC))

जिरेल् जाति किरात् होइन्न् र् किरात् सन्ग् फेस् मिल्दाइन्। यिनिहरु भोते हुन्/