नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्


नेपोलियन प्रथम
नेपोलियन.
आफ्नो कार्यालयमा नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट सन् १८१२ मा झाक-लुई दाभिदले बनाएको चित्र
फ्रान्स सम्राट
शासनकाल सन् १८०४ मे १८ – सन् १८१४ अप्रिल ११
सन् १८१५ मार्च २० – सन् १८१५ जुन २२
फ्रान्स सन् १८०४ डिसेम्बर २
पुर्वाधिकारी: स्वयं (पहिलो दुतावास)
उत्तराधिकारी: लुई XVIII (de jure सन् १८१४ मा)
इटाली नरेश
शासन अवधि सन् १८०५ मार्च १७ – सन् १८१४ अप्रिल ११
राज्याभिषेक सन् १८०५ मे २६
पुर्वाधिकारी: स्वयं घोषित इटालीको राष्ट्रपति
उत्तराधिकारी: छैन(त्यसपछि इटालीका राजा भिक्टर इम्यानुएल दोश्रा भए)
जिवनसाथी: जोसेफिने डे ब्युहार्नाइस
म्यारी लुसी
सन्तान
नेपोलियन द्वीतिय
पुरानाम:
नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट
वंश बोनापार्ट घर
बुवा: कार्लो बोनापार्ट
आमा: लेटिजिया रामोलिनो
जन्म: 15 अगस्ट 1769
आजासियो, कोर्सिका, फ्रान्स
मृत्यु: 5 मे 1821 (51वर्ष )
सेन्ट हेलेना
चिहान: लेस इन्भालिडेस,प्यारिस, फ्रान्स
ह्स्ताक्षर:
धर्म: रोमन क्याथोलिक
नेपोलियनले प्रयोग गरेको सम्राटको प्रतीक


नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट (फ्रान्सिसी: Napoléon Bonaparte) (अगस्ट १५, १७६९मे ५, १८२१) फ्रान्सका प्रधान सेनापति र सम्राट थिए।

जीवनको शुरुकाल[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नेपोलियन बोनापार्टको जन्म नापोलेओने दि ब्वोनापार्ते का रूपमा कोर्सिकाको आजाच्चोमा बुवा कार्लो ब्वोनापार्ते, एक वकील र राजनेता, र आमा मारी-लेतित्सिया ब्वोनापार्तेको कोखबाट भएको थियो। ब्वोनापार्तेहरू कोर्सिकाका संभ्रान्त र धनि परिवार थिए। फ्रान्सेली जस्तो बनाउन, नेपोलियनले आफ्नो नाम परिवर्तन गरेका थिए।

सुरुवाति सैनिक जागीर[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नेपोलियनले सन् १७७९मा ब्रिएनको सैनिक प्रतिष्ठानमा प्रवेश पाउन सफल भए। सन् १७८४मा उनी पेरिसको एकोल र्‌वायाल मिलितेर (राजकीय सैनिक विद्यालय) सरे र एक वर्ष पश्चात सहायक उपरथीका रूपमा स्नातक भए।

त्यसपछिका ८ वर्ष नापोलेओं कोर्सिकामा बिताउन सफल भए। त्यहाँ उनी राजनैतिक र सैनिक मामलामा सक्रिय भए। सेनामा उनको पदोन्नति भयो।

फ्रान्सिसी क्रान्तिले फ्रान्समा धेरै द्वन्द र अव्यवस्था फैलायो। धेरै पल्ट, नेपोलियन was connected to those in power. Other times, he was in jail. He helped the French Republic from those who supported the former king of France. He became a general in the French army. He led troops in Italy and he began to gain fame and power.

नेपोलियनले मार्च ९, १७९६मा झोजेफिन द बोआर्ने सँग बिवाह गरे।

मे १७९८ मा, नेपोलियन left for a campaign in Egypt and Syria. The French needed to threaten Britain's empire in India and the French Directory's concerns that नेपोलियन would take control of France. The Egyptian campaign was a military failure. नेपोलियन went back to France because of a change in the French government. Some believe that नेपोलियन should not have left his soldiers in Egypt. नेपोलियन helped lead the ब्रुमेर coup of November १७९९.

फ्रान्सका सम्राट[सम्पादन गर्ने]

१८०२मा प्रथम कन्सुलका रूपमा नापोलेओंको चित्र

By February १८००, नेपोलियन was the First Consul of France. France was still at war with most of Europe. Peace was gained for a short time after the मारेङ्गोको लडाइ.

Bonaparte changed many ways of life in France. His changes to the legal system, the नेपोलियनic Code, are considered to be a good change. नेपोलियन became First Consul for Life in १८०२ and Emperor of France in १८०४. This means that he was essentially a dictator.

Europe was not at peace for long. Fighting resumed. नेपोलियन and France won many battles against a range of alliances between Austria, Great Britain, Russia, and Prussia. Early on, नेपोलियन won many battles like the Battle of आउस्टेरलित्स. नेपोलियन made his relatives rulers of some of the countries he beat.

नेपोलियन also made mistakes and suffered setbacks. The French navy was kept firmly in check by British navy. The British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar let the British control the ocean and sea.

नेपोलियन made his brother the ruler of Spain. This caused some in Spain to begin guerilla warfare against the French.

On March ११, १८१०, नेपोलियन married his second wife, मारी लुइज, Duchess of पार्मा. Many people were upset that he divorced Josephine.

पराजय र निर्वासन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

In 1812, नेपोलियन रसिय माअ युद्धको लगि गये. They defeated many Russian cities and villages, but by the time they reached Moscow it was winter and his army did not have enough food. नेपोलियन's army was unable to defeat the Russians. The Russians began to attack. नेपोलियन and his army had to go back to France. Only १०,००० soldiers were able to fight at the end of the retreat.

On March 30, 1814, Paris surrendered. नेपोलियन gave up rule of France on April 11, 1814. He went into exile on the small island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea

सय दिन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नेपोलियन made a surprise return to France on March १, १८१५. His former troops joined him and he again became ruler of France for a length of १०० days. नेपोलियन was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, which was his last battle. नेपोलियन was captured in Waterloo and taken to his second exile on the island of Saint Helena.

दोस्रो निर्वासन र मृत्यु[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नेपोलियनलाई दोस्रोपटक अफ्रीका कोष्टको सेन्ट हेलेना द्वीपमा पठाइयो त्यहाँ यिनको पेटको क्यान्सरका कारण ५ मे १८२१मा निधन भयो।