सामग्रीमा जानुहोस्

आवश्यकता शृङ्खला सिद्धान्त

विकिपिडिया, एक स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोशबाट
अब्राहम मास्लोको आवश्यकता शृंखला सिद्धान्त

आवश्यकता शृङ्खला सिद्धान्त अमेरिकी मनोबिद् अब्राहम मास्लोद्वारा प्रस्तुत गरिएको मनोविज्ञानको अवधारणा हो । उनले १९४३ मा Psychological Review जर्नल मा लेख "A Theory of Human Motivation" मा प्रस्तुत गरेका थिए ।[१] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. The theory is a classification system intended to reflect the universal needs of society as its base, then proceeding to more acquired emotions.[२] The hierarchy of needs is split between deficiency needs and growth needs, with two key themes involved within the theory being individualism and the prioritization of needs. While the theory is usually shown as a pyramid in illustrations, Maslow himself never created a pyramid to represent the hierarchy of needs.[३][४] The hierarchy of needs is a psychological idea and also an assessment tool, particularly in education, healthcare and social work.[५] The hierarchy remains a popular framework, for example in sociology research, management training,[६] and higher education.[७]अब्राहम मास्लोको यो आवश्यकता शृंखला सिद्धान्त निम्नलिखित मान्यताहरूमा आधारित छ ।

  • मानिसका आवश्यकता र उद्देश्य अनगिन्ती हुन्छन्।
  • आवश्यकताको शृंखला हुन्छ।
  • असन्तुष्ट आवश्यकताले कर्मचारीलाई उत्प्रेरणा दिन्छ।
  • मानिसले विकास र विस्तार चाहन्छ ।

शृङ्खला[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

शारीरिक आवश्यकता[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

यश आवश्यकताभित्र गाँस, बाँस, कपासका अतिरिक्त आराम तथा पुनर्ताजगी, कार्यसम्पादनमा भौतिक सुबिधा तथा उचित कार्य घण्टा पर्दछन्।

सुरक्षा आवश्यकता[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

यसभित्र सुरक्षित कार्य अवस्था, जागिरको सुरक्षा, तथा उचित पारिश्रमिक तथा सुबिधाहरु पर्दछन्।

सामाजिक आवश्यकता[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

सामाजिक आवश्यकताभित्र सहकर्मीको मित्रवत् व्यवहार, ग्राहकसँग अन्तर्कृया,उपयुक्त सुपरिवेक्षक, समाजमा स्वीकार्य, प्रेमपूर्वक रहने, सामाजिक संगठनमा संलग्न रहने, समितिहरूमा रहने आदि पर्दछन्।

अहम् आवश्यकता[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

यस अन्तर्गत आत्मसम्मान, उच्च तथा मर्यादित ओहदा, इज्जत तथा प्रतिष्ठा, स्वतन्त्रता, प्रशंसा, हाकिमद्वारा मान्यता तथा पहिचान आदि पर्दछन्।

आत्म सन्तुष्टि आवश्यकता[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

सिर्जनशील तथा चुनौतीपूर्ण कामको अपेक्षा, निर्णयमा सहभागी हुन पाउने अपेक्षा तथा कार्यमा स्वायत्तताको अपेक्षा यस आवश्यकताभित्र पर्दछन्। [८]

आलोचना[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरू[सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

  1. Maslow 1943.
  2. Deckers, Lambert (२०१८), Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental, Routledge Press, आइएसबिएन 9781138036338 
  3. Kaufman, Scott Barry; Bridgman, Todd; Cummings, Stephen; Ballard, John (अप्रिल २३, २०१९), "Who Created Maslow's Iconic Pyramid?", Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network, New York City: Springer Nature America, आइएसएसएन 0036-8733, मूलबाट मे ८, २०१९-मा सङ्ग्रहित, "The claim that Maslow stole the idea for his pyramid from the Blackfoot has gained attention on social media, but if Maslow did not create the pyramid, he could not have taken it from the Blackfoot. There is no doubt that Maslow’s fieldwork with the Blackfoot was insightful for him. He discussed his observations with the Blackfoot briefly in his 1954 book. Maslow’s biographer, Ed Hoffman, devoted an entire chapter to Maslow’s fieldwork. While Maslow learned much about these proud people, there is nothing in these writings to suggest he borrowed or stole ideas for his hierarchy of needs." 
  4. Bridgman, Todd; Cummings, Stephen; Ballard, John (मार्च २०१९), "Who Built Maslow's Pyramid? A History of the Creation of Management Studies' Most Famous Symbol and Its Implications for Management Education", Academy of Management Learning & Education 18 (1): 81–98, आइएसएसएन 1537-260X, डिओआई:10.5465/amle.2017.0351 
  5. Poston, Bob (अगस्ट २००९), "An Exercise in Personal Exploration: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs", The Surgical Technologist (Association of Surgical Technologists) 308: ३४८। 
  6. Kremer, William; Hammond, Claudia (अगस्ट ३१, २०१३), "Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business", World Service, BBC News Magazine, मूलबाट जुलाई १६, २०१८-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच सेप्टेम्बर १, २०१३, "Abraham Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs was broadcast on Mind Changers on Radio 4 and Health Check on the BBC World Service" 
  7. Freitas, Frances Anne; Leonard, Lora J. (जनवरी २०११), "Maslow's hierarchy of needs and student academic success", Teaching and Learning in Nursing 6 (1): 9–13, आइएसएसएन 1557-3087, डिओआई:10.1016/j.teln.2010.07.004 
  8. व्यवस्थापनको सिद्धान्त : डा. सन्तोषराज पौड्याल , गोपालमान प्रधान, केदारप्रसाद भण्डारी २०७०