बोलिभिया

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

‍‍‍

Plurinational State of Bolivia
Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (Spanish)
Bulivya Mamallaqta ढाँचा:Qu icon
Wuliwya Suyu ढाँचा:Ay icon
आदर्श वाक्य¡La unión es la fuerza!
"The unity is the strength" (Spanish) [१]
राष्ट्रगानHimno Nacional de Bolivia (Spanish)
Wiphala of Qulla Suyu:[२]
Wiphala of Qulla Suyu
राजधानी Sucre (constitutional capital)[३][४]
19°2′S 65°15′W / -19.033, -65.25
La Paz (administrative capital)[४]
16°30′S 68°09′W / -16.5, -68.15
ठूलो शहर Santa Cruz de la Sierra
17°48′S 63°10′W / -17.8, -63.167
सरकारी भाषा Spanish
Quechua
Aymara
and 34 other native languages[५][६]
धर्म  55% Amerindian
(Quechua, Aymara
and 34 other ethnic groups)
30% Mestizo
15% White[७]
सरकारको प्रकार Unitary Presidential Republic
 -  President Evo Morales
 -  Vice President Álvaro García
Independence from स्पेन 
 -  Declared 6 August 1825 
 -  Recognized 21 July 1847 
 -  Current constitution
February 7, 2009 
क्षेत्रफल
 -  जम्मा १,०९८,५८१ km2 (28th)
४२४,१६३ sq mi 
 -  पानी (%) 1.29
जनसङ्ख्या
 -  2010 अनुमान 10,907,778[८] (84th)
 -  जनगणना 2001 8,280,184 
 -  जनघनत्व 8.9/km2 (220th)
२३/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 अनुमान
 -  जम्मा $47.882 billion[९] 
 -  प्रतिव्यक्ति आय $4,592[९] 
GDP (nominal) 2011 अनुमान
 -  जम्मा $22.778 billion[९] 
 -  प्रतिव्यक्ति आय $2,143[९] 
Gini (2009) 58.2[१०] (high
HDI (2011) 0.663[११] (medium) (108th)
मुद्रा Boliviano (BOB)
समय क्षेत्र (UTC-4)
सडक प्रयोग right
इन्टरनेट TLD .bo
टेलिफोन कोड नं. +591

परिचय[सम्पादन गर्ने]

बोलिभिया(स्पेनिस: [boliˈβja]) आधिकारिक रूपमा प्लुरिनेशनल स्टेट अफ बोलिभिया मध्य दक्षिण अमेरिकि भुपरिवेष्ठित मुलुक हो। यो देश दक्षिण अमेरिकाको सबैभन्दा गरीब राष्ट्र पनि हो। यसको पुर्व र उत्तरमा ब्राजिल, दक्षिणमा पाराग्वेअर्जेन्टिना, दक्षिण पश्चिममा चिले र पश्चिममा पेरु रहेका छन्। यो देशको राजधानी लापाजसुकर हुन्। यहाँको मुख्य भाषा स्पेनिस हो।

Sánchez de Lozada and Banzer: देश लाई उदार गराउने[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada

भुगोल[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Territorial division of Bolivia
Department Abbreviation
(ISO)
Population Surface (km²) Density Capital city Bolivia Departmentos con nombres.png
Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia BO 10.027.644 1.098.581 9,1 Sucre (Constitutional)
Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Administrative)
Flag of Beni.svg Beni BO-B 430.049 213.564 1,9 Trinidad
Flag of Chuquisaca.svg Chuquisaca BO-H 631.062 51.524 11,9 Sucre
Flag of Cochabamba.svg Cochabamba BO-C 1.786.040 55.631 22,7 Cochabamba
Flag of lapaz.svg La Paz BO-L 2.756.989 133.985 19,9 La Paz
Flag of Oruro.svg Oruro BO-O 444.093 53.558 8,2 Oruro
Flag of Pando.svg Pando BO-N 75.335 63.827 1,1 Cobija
Flag of potosi.svg Potosí BO-P 780.392 118.218 6,5 Potosí
Flag of Santa Cruz.svg Santa Cruz Department BO-S 2.626.697 370.621 7,1 Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Flag of Tarija.svg Tarija BO-T 496.988 37.623 12,5 Tarija
Source: Demographic Projections 2008, Bolivian National Demographic Institute.[१२] The departmental densitiy has been calculated with the population of 2006.
Fauna and Flora of Bolivia
Ocelot 01.jpg Squirrel monkey3.JPG Flamingos Laguna Colorada.jpg Lama3.jpg
Leopardus pardalis
Ocelot
Saimiri boliviensis
Black-capped squirrel monkey
Phoenicopterus andinus
Andean Flamingo
Lama glama
Llama
Inia boliviensis
Amazon river dolphin
Heliconia rostrata1.jpg Echinopsis boyuibensis1PCJO.jpg Flordepaineiraabelha.jpg Leaves I IMG 8668.jpg Kantuta Cochabamba Bolivia.jpg
Heliconia rostrata
Patujú
Echinopsis boyuibensis
Boyuibe cactus
Ceiba speciosa
Toborochi
Swietenia macrophylla
Mara
Cantua buxifolia
Cantuta

Territorial limits[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Boundaries
Bolivia rel93.jpg
Country Terrestrial Maritime Total
 Argentina 471 302 773
 ब्राजिल 750 2.673¹ 3.423
 Chile 830 20 850
 पाराग्वे 634 57 741
 Peru 513 534² 1.047
Terrestrial 3.469
Maritime 3.579
Total 6.834
Notes:

1 =From the 2.673 kilometers of maritime boundaries with Brazil, 95 kilometers are lakes, being the rest rivers.
2 =From the 544 kilometers of maritime boundaries with Peru, 150 kilometers are in the Lake Titicaca, being the rest rivers.

Satellital image of Bolivia
Contrast of the land relief forms of Bolivia, from an elevation of 4.000 meters in the Andean region (altiplano) to 2.500 meters in the Sub-Andean region (valleys) and to 400 meters in Los Llanos region (savanna).

ईतिहाँस[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Tiwanaku at its largest territorial extent, AD 950
Inca Expansion (1438–1527)
A llama in the Laguna Colorada, a shallow salt lake in the southwestern Bolivian sector of the Altiplano.

राजनिति र प्रशासन[सम्पादन गर्ने]

चित्र:La paz Bolivia view 2008.jpg
La Paz skyline. The city is the highest capital in the world.
Evo Morales' inauguration as President

सन्दर्भ सामाग्रीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. "Central Bank of Bolivia", The Bolivian coin 
  2. Article 6, section II of the new Bolivian constitution establishes the Wiphala as a national symbol of Bolivia (along with the flag, national anthem and coat of arms). See "Bandera indígena boliviana es incluida como símbolo patrio en nueva Constitución", October 21, 2008, United Press International.
  3. "Artículo 6. I. Sucre es la Capital de Bolivia." (Article 6. I. Sucre is the capital of Bolivia.) Constitution of Bolivia
  4. ४.० ४.१ CIA - The World Factbook
  5. Bolivian Constitution, Article 5-I: Son idiomas oficiales del Estado el castellano y todos los idiomas de las naciones y pueblos indígena originario campesinos, que son el aymara, araona, baure, bésiro, canichana, cavineño, cayubaba, chácobo, chimán, ese ejja, Guaraní, guarasu'we, guarayu, itonama, leco, machajuyai-kallawaya, machineri, maropa, mojeño-trinitario, mojeño-ignaciano, moré, mosetén, movima, pacawara, puquina, quechua, sirionó, tacana, tapieté, toromona, uru-chipaya, weenhayek, yawanawa, yuki, yuracaré y zamuco.
  6. "Kids Encyclopedia", 8 February 2009 
  7. "The World Factbook – Bolivia" 
  8. "Bolivia" 
  9. ९.० ९.१ ९.२ ९.३ "Bolivia" 
  10. "Distribution of family income – Gini index", The World Factbook, CIA 
  11. "Human Development Report 2010", 2011 
  12. [१]