जि-सेभेन

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Group of Seven and the European Union
Group of Seven (G7) Countries.svg
जी-सेभेन राष्ट्र (निलो) र युरोपेली सङ्घ (teal) in the world

 क्यानडा
प्रधानमन्त्री जस्टिन ट्रुडो

 फ्रान्स

राष्ट्रपति एमानुएल माक्रोँ

 जर्मनी

चान्सलर एन्जेला मर्केल

 इटाली

प्रधानमन्त्री मारियो द्रागी

 जापान

प्रधानमन्त्री योसिहिदे सुगा

 संयुक्त अधिराज्य

बेलायतका प्रधानमन्त्री बोरिस जोनसन

 United States (२०२० host)

राष्ट्रपति डोनाल्ड ट्रम्प

 European Union

परिषद अध्यक्ष चार्ल्स माइकल
आयोग अध्यक्ष उर्सुला भोन डेर लेन

सातको समूह ( जी७ -जी-सेभेन) एक अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय अन्तर सरकारी आर्थिक सङ्गठन हो जसमा सात प्रमुख विकसित देशहरू : क्यानडा, फ्रान्स, जर्मनी, इटली, जापान, ब्रिटेनसंयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका रहेका छन्, जो विश्वको सबैभन्दा ठूलो आईएमएफ - उन्नत अर्थतन्त्र हुन् । [१]

२०१८ को अनुसार , यसमा संलग्न सात देशहरूले विश्वव्यापी खुद सम्पत्तिको ५८% हिस्सा (३१७ ट्रिलियन डलर) र वैश्विक कुल ग्राहस्थ उत्पादनको ४६% भन्दा बढी हिस्सा र क्रयशक्ति मा आधारित वैश्विक जीडीपी को ३२% भन्दा बढी हिस्सा ओगटेको छ । [२] यूरोपीयन सङ्घ जी-सेभेन को आमन्त्रित सदस्य हो ।

वार्षिक जी-सेभेन शिखर सम्मेलन मा यी ७ देशहरूका ७ सरकार-प्रमुखहरू शामेल हुने गर्छन्।

इतिहास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

काम[सम्पादन गर्ने]

शिखर सम्मेलनरूको सूची[सम्पादन गर्ने]

# मिति आयोजक अध्यक्षता स्थान टिप्पणी
१st १५–१७ नोबेम्बर १९७५ France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Château de Rambouillet, Yvelines पहिलो र अन्तिम जी-६ शिखर सम्मेलन
२nd २७–२८ जुन १९७६ ढाँचा:Country Gerald R. Ford Dorado, Puerto Rico[३] Also called "Rambouillet II". क्यानाडा यस समूहमा जोडियो र जी-७ को निर्माण भयो.[३]
3rd ७–८ मे १९७७ ढाँचा:Country James Callaghan London, England युरोपेली आयोगका अध्यक्षलाइ वार्षिक जी-७ शिखर सम्मेलनमा निमन्त्रणा गरियो
४th १६–१७ जुलाई १९७८ ढाँचा:Country Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
५th २८–२९ जुन १९७९ Japan Masayoshi Ōhira टोक्यो
६th २२–२3 जुन १९८० ढाँचा:Country Francesco Cossiga Venice, Veneto Prime Minister Ōhira died in office on १२ जुन ; Foreign Minister Saburō Ōkita led the delegation that represented Japan.
७th २०–२१ जुलाई १९८१ ढाँचा:Country Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Québec
८th ४–६ जुन १९८२ ढाँचा:Country François Mitterrand Versailles, Yvelines
९th २८–3० मे १९८3 ढाँचा:Country Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia
१०th ७–९ जुन १९८४ ढाँचा:Country Margaret Thatcher London, England
११th २–४ मे १९८५ ढाँचा:Country हेल्मुट कोल Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
१२th ४–६ मे १९८६ Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo
१3th ८–१० जुन १९८७ ढाँचा:Country Amintore Fanfani Venice, Veneto
१४th १९–२१ जुन १९८८ ढाँचा:Country Brian Mulroney Toronto, Ontario
१५th १४–१६ जुलाई १९८९ ढाँचा:Country François Mitterrand Paris, Paris FATF was formed
१६th ९–११ जुलाई १९९० ढाँचा:Country George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas
१७th १५–१७ जुलाई १९९१ ढाँचा:Country John Major London, England
१८th ६–८ जुलाई १९९२ ढाँचा:Country हेल्मुट कोल Munich, Bavaria The first G७ summit in reunified Germany.
१९th ७–९ जुलाई १९९3 Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo
२०th ८–१० जुलाई १९९४ ढाँचा:Country Silvio Berlusconi Naples, Campania
२१st १५–१७ जुन १९९५ ढाँचा:Country Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia
२२nd २७–२९ जुन १९९६ ढाँचा:Country ज्याक्स सिराक Lyon, Rhône The first summit to debut international organizations, namely the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.[४]
२3rd २०–२२ जुन १९९७ ढाँचा:Country बिल क्लिन्टन Denver, Colorado Russia joined the group, forming the G८.
२४th १५–१७ मे १९९८ ढाँचा:Country Tony Blair Birmingham, West Midlands
२५th १८–२० जुन १९९९ ढाँचा:Country Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia The first summit of the G२० major economies at Berlin.
२६th २१–२3 जुलाई २००० ढाँचा:Country Yoshirō Mori Nago, Okinawa South Africa was invited to the summit for the first time, and was thereafter invited annually without interruption until the 3८th G८ summit in २०१२. With permission from a G८ leader, other nations were invited to the summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria, and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was also invited for the first time.[४]
२७th २१–२२ जुलाई २००१ ढाँचा:Country Silvio Berlusconi Genoa, Liguria Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali, and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[४] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani was shot and killed by the Carabinieri during a violent demonstration. One of the largest and most violent anti-globalization movement protests occurred during the summit.[५] Following those events and the September ११ attacks two months later in २००१, the summits have been held at more remote locations.
२८th २६–२७ जुन २००२ ढाँचा:Country Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta Russia gained permission to officially host a G८ Summit.
२९th १–3 जुन २००3 ढाँचा:Country Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie The G८+५ was unofficially formed when China, India, Brazil, and Mexico were invited to this summit for the first time (the other member of the +५ was South Africa). Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and Switzerland.[४]
3०th ८–१० जुन २००४ ढाँचा:Country George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia A record number of leaders from १२ different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen, and Uganda.[४] The state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan took place in Washington during the summit. Many of the G८ leaders attended this funeral, along with २० other heads of state.
3१st ६–८ जुलाई २००५ ढाँचा:Country Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland The G८+५ was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed ५२ people on the London Underground and a bus. Ethiopia and Tanzania were invited for the first time. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here.[४] २२५,००० people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G८.[६]
3२nd १५–१७ जुलाई २००६ ढाँचा:Country(G८ member, not G७)[७] भ्लादिमिर पुटिन Strelna, Saint Petersburg The only G८ summit held in Russia. The International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut here.[४]
33rd ६–८ जुन २००७ ढाँचा:Country Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.[४]
3४th ७–९ जुलाई २००८ ढाँचा:Country Yasuo Fukuda Tōyako, Hokkaidō Australia, Indonesia, and South Korea accepted their G८ summit invitations for the first time.[४]
3५th ८–१० जुलाई २००९ ढाँचा:Country सिल्भियो बेर्लुस्कोनी L'Aquila, Abruzzo This G८ summit was originally planned to be held in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L'Aquila as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi's desire to help the region after the २००९ L'Aquila earthquake.[८] With १५ invited countries, it was the most heavily attended summit in the history of the group. Angola, Denmark, Netherlands, and Spain accepted their invitations for the first time.[९] A record of ११ international organizations were represented in this summit. For the first time, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization accepted their invitations.[१०]
3६th २५–२६ जुन २०१०[११] ढाँचा:Country स्टेफेन हार्पर Huntsville, Ontario[१२] Malawi, Colombia, Haiti, and Jamaica accepted their invitations for the first time.[१३]
3७th २६–२७ मे २०११ ढाँचा:Country निकोलस सारकोजी Deauville,[१४][१५] Calvados Guinea, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire, and Tunisia accepted their invitations for the first time. The League of Arab States made its debut in the meeting.[१६]
3८th १८–१९ मे २०१२ ढाँचा:Country बाराक ओबामा Camp David, Maryland The summit was originally planned for Chicago, along with the NATO summit,[१७] but on ५ March २०१२ an official announcement was made that the summit would be held at the more private location of Camp David, and starting one day earlier than previously scheduled.[१८] The second summit in which one of the leaders, in this case Vladimir Putin, declined to participate. The summit concentrated on the core leaders only, as no non-G८ leaders or international organizations were invited.
3९th १७–१८ जुन २०१3 ढाँचा:Country David Cameron Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland[१९] As in २०१२, only the core members of the G८ attended this meeting. The four main topics that were discussed here were trade, government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis.[२०]
४०th ४–५ जुन २०१४ ढाँचा:Country Herman Van Rompuy

José Manuel Barroso

ब्रसेल्स, बेल्जियम This summit was originally planned to be held in Sochi, Russia, but was relocated, with Russia disinvited, due to the latter's annexation of Crimea.[२१][२२] Thus, the grouping reverted from G८ back to G७. (There was an emergency meeting in March २०१४ in The Hague.)
४१st ७–८ जुन २०१५ ढाँचा:Country एन्जेला मर्केल Schloss Elmau, Bavaria[२३] The summit was focused on the global economy, as well as on key issues regarding foreign, security, and development policy.[२४] The Global Apollo Programme was also on the agenda.[२५]
४२nd २६–२७ मे २०१६[२६][२७] ढाँचा:Country Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie Prefecture[२८] The G७ leaders aimed to address challenges affecting the growth of the world economy, like slowdowns in emerging markets and drops in price of oil. The G७ also issued a warning to the United Kingdom that "a UK exit from the EU would reverse the trend towards greater global trade and investment, and the jobs they create and is a further serious risk to growth."[२९] Commitment to an EU–Japan Free Trade Agreement.
४3rd २६–२७ मे २०१७[३०] ढाँचा:Country Paolo Gentiloni Taormina, Sicily[३१] The G७ leaders emphasized common endeavours: ending the Syrian crisis, fulfilling the UN mission in Libya, and reducing the presence of ISIS, ISIL, and Da'esh in Syria and Iraq. North Korea was urged to comply with UN resolutions, and Russian responsibility for the Ukrainian conflict was stressed. Supporting economic activity and ensuring price stability was demanded, while inequalities in trade and gender were called to be challenged. It was agreed to help countries in creating conditions that address the drivers of migration: ending hunger, increasing competitiveness, and advancing global health security.[३२][३३]
४४th ८–९ जुन २०१८ ढाँचा:Country[३४] जस्टिन ट्रुडो La Malbaie, Québec The summit took place at the Manoir Richelieu. Prime Minister Trudeau announced five themes for Canada's G७ presidency, which began in January २०१८. Climate, along with commerce trades, was one of the main themes. "Working together on climate change, oceans and clean energy."[३५] The final statement contained २८ points. US President Donald Trump did not agree to the economic section of the final statement.[३६] The G७ members also announced to recall sanctions and to be ready to take further restrictive measures against Russian Federation for its failure to implement the Minsk Protocol completely.[३७]
४५th २४–२६ अगस्ट २०१९ ढाँचा:Country[३८] Emmanuel Macron Biarritz, Pyrénées-Atlantiques It was agreed at the summit that the World Trade Organization, "with regard to intellectual property protection, to settle disputes more swiftly and to eliminate unfair trade practices", "to simplify regulatory barriers and modernize international taxation within the framework of the OECD", "to ensure that Iran never acquires nuclear weapons and to foster peace and stability in the region", and "to support a truce in Libya that will lead to a long-term ceasefire." The summit also addressed the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the २०१९ Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests.[३९][४०][४१][४२]
४६th Cancelled ढाँचा:Country (planned)[३८] Donald Trump (planned) Camp David, Maryland (planned) The summit was originally to be held in Camp David, Maryland, but was officially postponed on १९ March २०२० due to the concerns over the worldwide coronavirus pandemic, and was planned to be replaced by a global videoconference,[४३] but in the end, no meeting was held.
४७th[४४] ११–१3 जुन २०२१ ढाँचा:Country Boris Johnson Carbis Bay, Cornwall, England[४५] The summit reached provisional agreement on a global minimum corporate tax rate of १५%.[४६]
४८th[४७] २६–२८ जुन २०२२ ढाँचा:Country[३२] Olaf Scholz Schloss Elmau, Bavaria[४८]
४९th TBD, २०२3 ढाँचा:Country[३२] Fumio Kishida Hiroshima, Hiroshima Prefecture[४९]
५०th TBD, २०२४ ढाँचा:Country[३२] TBD TBD

Country leaders and EU representatives (as of २०२२)[सम्पादन गर्ने]

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. "World Economic Outlook Database", International Monetary Fund. imf.org, अक्टोबर २०१७, Major Advanced Economies (G7)। 
  2. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", www.imf.org 
  3. ३.० ३.१ Shabecoff, Philip. "Go-Slow Policies Urged by Leaders in Economic Talks; Closing Statement Calls for Sustained Growth Coupled With Curbs on Inflation; Ford's Aims Realized; 7 Heads of Government Also Agree to Consider a New Body to Assist Italy Co-Slow Economic Policies Urged by 7 Leaders," The New York Times. 29 June 1976; Chronology, June 1976. वेब्याक मेसिन अभिलेखिकरण १५ जुलाई २०१० मिति
  4. ४.० ४.१ ४.२ ४.३ ४.४ ४.५ ४.६ ४.७ ४.८ Kirton, John. "A Summit of Substantial Success: The Performance of the 2008 G8"; pp. 88, 89 G8 Information Centre – University of Toronto 17 July 2008.
  5. Italy officials convicted over G8, BBC News, 15 July 2008
  6. David Miller "Spinning the G8" वेब्याक मेसिन अभिलेखिकरण २८ मे २००९ मिति, Zednet, 13 May 2005.
  7. "Select Country or Country Groups", www.imf.org 
  8. "Berlusconi Proposes Relocation of G8 Summit to L'Aquila", Running in heels, २४ अप्रिल २००९, मूलबाट ८ अगस्ट २०१६-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच १२ जुन २०१६ 
  9. "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – Other Countries", G8italia2009.it, मूलबाट ६ अप्रिल २०१०-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच ८ फेब्रुअरी २०१० 
  10. "G8 Summit 2009 – official website – International Organizations", G8italia2009.it, मूलबाट ६ अप्रिल २०१०-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच ८ फेब्रुअरी २०१० 
  11. "Canada's G8 Plans", अन्तिम पहुँच २७ जुन २०१० 
  12. "Prime Minister of Canada: Prime Minister announces Canada to host 2010 G8 Summit in Huntsville", Pm.gc.ca, मूलबाट ८ फेब्रुअरी २०१०-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच ८ फेब्रुअरी २०१० 
  13. Participants at the 2010 Muskoka Summit. G8 Information Centre. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  14. "Le prochain G20 aura lieu à Cannes," Le point. 12 November 2010.
  15. The City of Deauville Official 2011 G8 website. Retrieved 7 February 2011. वेब्याक मेसिन अभिलेखिकरण १९ मार्च २०१२ मिति
  16. Kirton, John (२६ मे २०११), "Prospects for the 2011 G8 Deauville Summit", G8 Information Centre, अन्तिम पहुँच २७ मे २०११ 
  17. "2012 G8 Summit Relocation", G8.utoronto.ca, अन्तिम पहुँच २६ मार्च २०१३ 
  18. "White House Moves G8 Summit From Chicago To Camp David", CBS Chicago, ५ मार्च २०१२, अन्तिम पहुँच ५ मार्च २०१२ 
  19. "BBC News – Lough Erne resort in Fermanagh to host G8 summit", BBC News (Bbc.co.uk), २० नोभेम्बर २०१२, अन्तिम पहुँच २६ मार्च २०१३ 
  20. "As it happened: G8 summit", BBC News, अन्तिम पहुँच १८ जुन २०१३ 
  21. "Russia out in the cold after suspension from the G8", The Scotsman, १८ मार्च २०१४, अन्तिम पहुँच २३ मार्च २०१४ 
  22. "G-7 Agrees to Exclude Russia, Increase Sanctions/World Powers to Meet in Brussels in June Without Russia", The Wall Street Journal, २५ मार्च २०१४। 
  23. "Germany to hold 2015 G8 summit at Alpine spa", The Washington Post, २३ जनवरी २०१४, मूलबाट २३ जनवरी २०१४-मा सङ्ग्रहित। 
  24. "German G7 presidency – Key topics for the summit announced", १९ नोभेम्बर २०१४। 
  25. Carrington, Damian, "Global Apollo programme seeks to make clean energy cheaper than coal", The Guardian (2 June 2015) (Guardian News Media), अन्तिम पहुँच २ जुन २०१५ 
  26. "Japan announced to host G7 summit in 2016 in Shima", prepsure.com, २३ जुन २०१५, अन्तिम पहुँच २७ जुन २०१५ 
  27. "Japan Announces Dates for G7 Summit in 2016", NDTV, २३ जुन २०१५, अन्तिम पहुँच २७ जुन २०१५ 
  28. "来年のサミット 三重県志摩市で開催へ (Next Year's Summit To Be Held in Shima City, Mie Prefecture)" (जापानीमा), ५ जुन २०१५, मूलबाट ५ जुन २०१५-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच ५ जुन २०१५ 
  29. Asthana, Anushka (२७ मे २०१६), "Brexit would pose 'serious risk' to global growth, say G7 leaders", The Guardian, अन्तिम पहुँच २८ मे २०१६ 
  30. "Renzi announces to host G7 summit in 2017 in Taormina", RaiNews24, २६ मे २०१६, अन्तिम पहुँच २७ मे २०१६ 
  31. Redazione (१ अप्रिल २०१६), "G7 a Taormina, è ufficiale. Renzi chiama da Boston il sindaco Giardina: "Il vertice si farà nella Perla"" 
  32. ३२.० ३२.१ ३२.२ ३२.३ "Come funziona il G7?", www.g7italy.it 
  33. "G7 Taormina Leaders' Communiqué", G7 Italy 2017, २७ मे २०१७, अन्तिम पहुँच ११ जुन २०१७ 
  34. "Canada to host 2018 G7 Summit in Charlevoix, Quebec", pm.gc.ca, Prime Minister of Canada, २७ मे २०१७, अन्तिम पहुँच २७ मे २०१७ 
  35. Walker, Tony R.; Xanthos, Dirk (२०१८), "A call for Canada to move toward zero plastic waste by reducing and recycling single-use plastics", Resources, Conservation and Recycling 133: 99–100, डिओआई:10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.014 
  36. "Sommet du G7 : Trump retire son soutien au communiqué commun sur le commerce", Le Monde.fr, ९ जुन २०१८। 
  37. Editorial, Reuters (९ जुन २०१८), "The Charlevoix G7 Summit Communique", Reuters 
  38. ३८.० ३८.१ "G7 Summit in Brussels, 4–5 June 2014: Background note and facts about the EU's role and action", ३ जुन २०१४, अन्तिम पहुँच २ अप्रिल २०१५ 
  39. "US President Donald Trump says he believes China sincerely seeks a trade deal", South China Morning Post, २६ अगस्ट २०१९। 
  40. "News Analysis: G7 summit declaration cannot conceal deep U.S.-EU rift", xinhuanet, २७ अगस्ट २०१९। 
  41. "Biarritz G7 summit non-binding declaration on Libya calls for truce, political solution and conference", Libya Herald, २७ अगस्ट २०१९। 
  42. "G7 leaders back HK autonomy, urge calm", rthk.hk, २७ अगस्ट २०१९। 
  43. Perano, Ursula; Treene, Alayna (१९ मार्च २०२०), "White House cancels in-person G7 summit at Camp David due to coronavirus", Media, अन्तिम पहुँच १२ अप्रिल २०२० 
  44. "G7 UK Presidency 2021", G7 UK Presidency 2021 (en-GBमा), अन्तिम पहुँच १० डिसेम्बर २०२१ 
  45. "G7: UK to host Cornwall seaside summit in summer", BBC News (en-GBमा), १७ जनवरी २०२१, अन्तिम पहुँच १७ जनवरी २०२१ 
  46. Rappeport, Alan (५ जुन २०२१), "Finance Leaders Reach Global Tax Deal Aimed at Ending Profit Shifting", The New York Times, मूलबाट ५ जुन २०२१-मा सङ्ग्रहित। 
  47. "G7 Germany Presidency 2022", 2022 G7 presidency Germany (en-GBमा), अन्तिम पहुँच १० मार्च २०२२ 
  48. "Germany's G7 Presidency in 2022: 2022 G7 Summit at Schloss Elmau", Bundesregierung, १४ डिसेम्बर २०२१, अन्तिम पहुँच १९ डिसेम्बर २०२१ 
  49. "Press Conference by Foreign Minister HAYASHI Yoshimasa", Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan), २७ मे २०२२, अन्तिम पहुँच ११ जुन २०२२ 

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