कोरियाली युद्ध

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
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यो लेख हिन्दीबाट नेपालीमा अनुवाद गरिएको हो, यसमा कतिपय त्रुटिहरु छन् जसलाई तपाईं सुधार गर्न सक्नु हुन्छ। 
कोरियाली युद्ध
In South Korea: (한국전쟁, 6·25 전쟁)
In North Korea: (조국해방전쟁)
भाग: the शीतयुद्ध and the inter-Korean conflict
Korean War Montage 2.png
मिति 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953[lower-alpha १]
(ढाँचा:Age in years, months, weeks and days)
स्थान Korean Peninsula, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Korea Strait, China–North Korea border
परिणाम Military stalemate
  • North Korean invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Subsequent U.S.-led United Nations invasion of North Korea repelled
  • Subsequent Chinese invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Korean Armistice Agreement signed in 1953
  • Korean conflict ongoing
भौगोलिक
परिवर्तन
*Korean Demilitarized Zone established
  • North Korea gains city of Kaesong but loses a net total of ३,९०० किमी2 (१,५०० वर्ग माइल) to South Korea.[१]
युद्धरत
उच्चाधिकारी तथा नेताहरू
शक्ति

Total: 972,334
Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit strength varied during war.

Total: 1,642,600
Note: The figures vary by source; peak unit strength varied during war.

धनजनको क्षती
Total: 178,405 dead and 32,925 missing
Total wounded: 566,434
Total: 398,000–750,000+ dead and 145,000+ missing
Total wounded: 686,500–789,000
  • Total civilians killed/wounded: 2.5 million (est.)[१७]
  • South Korea: 990,968 killed/wounded
    373,599 killed[१७]
    229,625 wounded[१७]
    387,744 abducted/missing[१७]
  • North Korea: 1,550,000 killed/wounded (est.)[१७]

ढाँचा:Campaignbox Korean War

शीत युद्ध कालमा लडिएको पहिलो मह्त्वपूर्ण युद्ध थियो एक तर्फ उत्तर कोरिया थियो जसको समर्थन सोभियत संघ तथा साम्यवादी चीन गरिरहेका थियो । दोस्रो तर्फ दक्षिण कोरिया थियो जसको रक्षा अमेरिका गर्दैथियो । युद्ध अन्तमा बिना निर्णय नैं समाप्त भयो तर जन क्षति तथा तनाव धेरै बढेर गएको थियो ।

कोरिया गणराज्यले दुनियाका सबै भन्दा उत्तर कोरियाका ३८ लाईनहरूका पार एक राष्ट्रीय स्तरको बनाउनको लागि कम्युनिस्ट शासनमा पूरा सहित, बाहिर दक्षिण कोरिया आक्रमणमा गरियो ।

युद्ध तीन मारे गए मानिसहरूका वर्षहरूका हजारहरू या घायल, औद्योगिक सुविधाहरूको सबै भन्दा ठूलो नोक्सान दुइटै देशहरूका बीच दक्षिण र उत्तर एक दोस्रोका विरोधी थिए विनाश एक प्रचलित भावना हुन जानेछ सहित चलेको छ कि अझै पनि कोरियाको विभाजन केवल दुनियामा विभाजित देश छ


  1. End of physical conflict and signing of an armistice. De jure, North and South Korea are still at war.
  2. २.० २.१ On 9 July 1951 troop constituents were: US: 70.4%, ROK: 23.3% other UNC: 6.3%[२]
  1. Birtle, Andrew J. (2000). The Korean War: Years of Stalemate. U.S. Army Center of Military History. प॰ 34. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071214151848/http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/kw-stale/stale.htm. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 14 December 2007. 
  2. Kim, Heesu (1996). Anglo-American Relations and the Attempts to Settle the Korean Question 1953–1960 (Thesis). London School of Economics and Political Science. p. 213. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170410050726/http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/2408/1/U615357.pdf. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 9 April 2017. 
  3. Young, Sam Ma (२०१०), "Israel's Role in the UN during the Korean War", Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 4 (3): 81–89, मूलबाट २४ अगस्ट २०१५-मा सङ्ग्रहित। 
  4. ४.० ४.१ "Post-War Warriors: Japanese Combatants in the Korean War" 
  5. Edles, Laura Desfor (1998). Symbol and Ritual in the New Spain: the transition to democracy after Franco. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. प॰ 32. ISBN 978-0521628853. 
  6. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named rozhlas cz
  7. ७.० ७.१ Edwards, Paul M. (2006). Korean War Almanac. Almanacs of American wars. New York: Infobase Publishing. प॰ 528. ISBN 978-0816074679. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170704225317/https://books.google.com/books?id=5gYCm0bM68sC&pg=PA528. 
  8. Kocsis, Piroska (२००५), "Magyar orvosok Koreában (1950–1957)" [Hungarian physicians in Korea (1950–1957)], ArchivNet: XX. századi történeti források (Hungarianमा), Budapest: Magyar Országos Levéltár, १० मे २०१७-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २२ नोभेम्बर २०१६ 
  9. "Romania's "Fraternal Support" to North Korea during the Korean War, 1950–1953", Wilson Centre, २१ फेब्रुअरी २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २४ जनवरी २०१३ 
  10. Stueck 1995, p. 196.
  11. Millett, Allan Reed, सं (2001). The Korean War, Volume 3. Korea Institute of Military History. U of Nebraska Press. प॰ 541. ISBN 978-0803277960. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170704225317/https://books.google.com/books?id=9JFvmnDiH-gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn%209780803277960&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAGoVChMIubb-2dmAyAIVAhc-Ch1Pdw9H. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 18 September 2015. "India could not be considered neutral." 
  12. Millett, Allan Reed, सं (2001). The Korean War, Volume 3. Korea Institute of Military History. U of Nebraska Press. प॰ 692. ISBN 978-0803277960. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130509055154/http://books.google.com/books?id=9JFvmnDiH-gC&lpg=PP1&dq=south%20armed%20forces%20size%20%22Korean%20War%22&pg=PA692. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 16 February 2013. "Total Strength 602,902 troops" 
  13. Tim Kane (२७ अक्टोबर २००४), "Global U.S. Troop Deployment, 1950–2003", Reports, The Heritage Foundation, २८ जनवरी २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति १५ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
    Ashley Rowland. "U.S. to keep troop levels the same in South Korea", 22 October 2008. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति:16 February 2013.
    Colonel Tommy R. Mize, United States Army (१२ मार्च २०१२), "U.S. Troops Stationed in South Korea, Anachronistic?", United States Army War College, Defense Technical Information Center, ८ अप्रिल २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति १६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
    Louis H. Zanardi; Barbara A. Schmitt; Peter Konjevich; M. Elizabeth Guran; Susan E. Cohen; Judith A. McCloskey (अगस्ट १९९१), "Military Presence: U.S. Personnel in the Pacific Theater", Reports to Congressional Requesters, United States General Accounting Office, १५ जुन २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति १५ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
  14. १४.०० १४.०१ १४.०२ १४.०३ १४.०४ १४.०५ १४.०६ १४.०७ १४.०८ १४.०९ १४.१० USFK Public Affairs Office, "USFK United Nations Command", United States Forces Korea, United States Department of Defense, ११ जुलाई २०१६-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २९ जुलाई २०१६, "Republic of Korea – 590,911
    Colombia – 1,068
    United States – 302,483
    Belgium – 900
    United Kingdom – 14,198
    South Africa – 826
    Canada – 6,146
    The Netherlands – 819
    Turkey – 5,453
    Luxembourg – 44
    Australia – 2,282
    Philippines – 1,496
    New Zealand – 1,385
    Thailand – 1,204
    Ethiopia – 1,271
    Greece – 1,263
    France – 1,119"
     
  15. Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950–1953. Greenwood Publishing Group. प॰ 126. ISBN 978-0275978358. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130509060215/http://books.google.com/books?id=NpOp2OO1-DAC&lpg=PA126&ots=Zjyv18HXCt&dq=preak%20strength%20British%20%22Korean%20War%22&pg=PA126. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 16 February 2013. "A peak strength of 14,198 British troops was reached in 1952, with over 40,000 total serving in Korea." 
    "UK-Korea Relations", British Embassy Pyongyang, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, ९ फेब्रुअरी २०१२, अभिगमन मिति १६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, "When war came to Korea in June 1950, Britain was second only to the United States in the contribution it made to the UN effort in Korea. 87,000 British troops took part in the Korean conflict, and over 1,000 British servicemen lost their lives" 
    Jack D. Walker, "A Brief Account of the Korean War", Information, Korean War Veterans Association, अभिगमन मिति १७ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, "Other countries to furnish combat units, with their peak strength, were: Australia (2,282), Belgium/Luxembourg (944), Canada (6,146), Colombia (1,068), Ethiopia (1,271), France (1,119), Greece (1,263), Netherlands (819), New Zealand (1,389), Philippines (1,496), Republic of South Africa (826), Thailand (1,294), Turkey (5,455), and the United Kingdom (Great Britain 14,198)." 
  16. "Land of the Morning Calm: Canadians in Korea 1950–1953", Veterans Affairs Canada, Government of Canada, ७ जनवरी २०१३, २३ मार्च २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २२ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, "Peak Canadian Army strength in Korea was 8,123 all ranks." 
  17. १७.०० १७.०१ १७.०२ १७.०३ १७.०४ १७.०५ १७.०६ १७.०७ १७.०८ १७.०९ १७.१० १७.११ १७.१२ १७.१३ १७.१४ १७.१५ १७.१६ १७.१७ १७.१८ १७.१९ १७.२० १७.२१ १७.२२ १७.२३ १७.२४ १७.२५ उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ROK Web
  18. १८.० १८.१ १८.२ Edwards, Paul M. (2006). Korean War Almanac. Almanacs of American wars. Infobase Publishing. प॰ 517. ISBN 978-0816074679. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130509024842/http://books.google.com/books?id=5gYCm0bM68sC&lpg=PA517&ots=-V8_0ry5Pa&dq=France%20%22Peak%20Strength%22%20%22Korean%20War%22&pg=PA517. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 22 February 2013. 
  19. Zhang 1995, p. 257.
  20. Shrader, Charles R. (1995). Communist Logistics in the Korean War. Issue 160 of Contributions in Military Studies. Greenwood Publishing Group. प॰ 90. ISBN 978-0313295096. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130509045924/http://books.google.com/books?id=UcGs__qQCzgC&lpg=PA90&ots=TcZk34bIGN&dq=CCF%20strength%20%22Korean%20War%22&pg=PA90. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 17 February 2013. "NKPA strength peaked in October 1952 at 266,600 men in eighteen divisions and six independent brigades." 
  21. Kolb, Richard K. (१९९९), "In Korea we whipped the Russian Air Force", VFW Magazine 86 (11), १० मे २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति १७ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, "Soviet involvement in the Korean War was on a large scale. During the war, 72,000 Soviet troops (among them 5,000 pilots) served along the Yalu River in Manchuria. At least 12 air divisions rotated through. A peak strength of 26,000 men was reached in 1952." 
  22. २२.० २२.१ "U.S. Military Casualties – Korean War Casualty Summary", Defense Casualty Analysis System, United States Department of Defense, ५ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, २२ फेब्रुअरी २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति ६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
  23. "Summary Statistics", Defense POW/Missing Personnel Office, United States Department of Defense, २४ जनवरी २०१३, २५ फेब्रुअरी २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति ६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
  24. "Records of American Prisoners of War During the Korean War, created, 1950–1953, documenting the period 1950–1953", Access to Archival Databases, National Archives and Records Administration, १ नोभेम्बर २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति ६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३, "This series has records for 4,714 U.S. military officers and soldiers who were prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War and therefore considered casualties." 
  25. २५.० २५.१ Office of the Defence Attaché (३० सेप्टेम्बर २०१०), "Korean war", British Embassy Seoul, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, अभिगमन मिति १६ फेब्रुअरी २०१३ 
  26. "Korean War WebQuest", Veterans Affairs Canada, Government of Canada, ११ अक्टोबर २०११, मूलबाट ३० जनवरी २०१३-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २८ मे २०१३, "In Brampton, Ontario, there is a 60-metre long "Memorial Wall" of polished granite, containing individual bronze plaques which commemorate the 516 Canadian soldiers who died during the Korean War." 
    "Canada Remembers the Korean War", Veterans Affairs Canada, Government of Canada, १ मार्च २०१३, मूलबाट ६ अक्टोबर २०१२-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २७ मे २०१३, "The names of 516 Canadians who died in service during the conflict are inscribed in the Korean War Book of Remembrance located in the Peace Tower in Ottawa." 
  27. Aiysha Abdullah; Kirk Fachnie (६ डिसेम्बर २०१०), "Korean War veterans talk of "forgotten war"", Canadian Army, Government of Canada, मूलबाट २३ मे २०१३-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २८ मे २०१३, "Canada lost 516 military personnel during the Korean War and 1,042 more were wounded." 
    "Canadians in the Korean War", kvacanada.com, Korean Veterans Association of Canada Inc., ११ मे २०१३-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २८ मे २०१३, "Canada's casualties totalled 1,558 including 516 who died." 
    "2013 declared year of Korean war veteran", 8 January 2013. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति:28 May 2013. “The 1,558 Canadian casualties in the three-year conflict included 516 people who died.”
  28. Ted Barris (१ जुलाई २००३), "Canadians in Korea", legionmagazine.com, Royal Canadian Legion, मूलबाट २० जुलाई २०१३-मा सङ्ग्रहित, अभिगमन मिति २८ मे २०१३, "Not one of the 33 Canadian PoWs imprisoned in North Korea signed the petitions." 
  29. Australian War Memorial Korea MIA Archived 28 March 2012 at the वेब्याक मेसिन. Retrieved 17 March 2012
  30. ३०.० ३०.१ Sandler, Stanley, सं (2002). Ground Warfare: H–Q. Volume 2 of Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. प॰ 160. ISBN 978-1576073445. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130509015932/http://books.google.com/books?id=L_xxOM85bD8C&lpg=PA1060&dq=Philippine%20casualties%20Korean%20War&pg=PA160. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 19 March 2013. "Philippines: KIA 92; WIA 299; MIA/POW 97
    New Zealand: KIA 34; WIA 299; MIA/POW 1"
     
  31. "Two War Reporters Killed", 14 August 1950.
  32. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Rummel1997
  33. ३३.० ३३.१ उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hickey
  34. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Li111
  35. "180,000 Chinese soldiers killed in Korean War, says Chinese general" Archived 3 June 2013 at the वेब्याक मेसिन.. China Daily, 28 June 2010. State Council Information Office, Chinese government, Beijing. "According to statistics compiled by the army's medical departments and hospitals, 114,084 servicemen were killed in military action or accidents, and 25,621 soldiers had gone missing. The other about 70,000 casualties died from wounds, illness and other causes, he said. To date, civil affairs departments have registered 183,108 war martyrs, Xu said."
  36. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Krivosheev1997