भियतनाम युद्ध

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
Jump to navigation Jump to search
भियतनाम युद्ध
(Chiến tranh Việt Nam)
भाग: हिन्दचीन युद्ध and the शीत युद्ध
VNWarMontage.png
मिति १ नोबेम्बर १९५५[A १] – ३० अप्रिल १९७५ (1975-04-30)
(ढाँचा:Age in years, months, weeks and days)
स्थान दक्षिण भियतनाम, उत्तर भियतनाम, कम्बोडिया, लाओस, दक्षिण चीन समुन्द्र, थाईल्याण्डको खाडी
परिणाम उत्तर भियतनामी विजय
  • हिन्द-चीनबाट अमेरिकी नेतृत्वको सेनाहरूको फिर्ता
  • कम्युनिस्ट सरकारहरूले दक्षिण भियतनाम, कम्बोडिया र लाओसमा शक्ति आर्जन
  • भियतनाम एकीकरण
भौगोलिक
परिवर्तन
उत्तर र दक्षिण भियतनामको एकीकरण
युद्धरत
 South Vietnam

[५]
 South Korea[५][६][७]
 Thailand[५][६][७]
 Australia[५][६][७]
 Philippines[५][६][७]
 New Zealand[५][६][७]
ढाँचा:Country data Khmer Republic[५]
ढाँचा:Country data Kingdom of Laos[५]

Military support:
 ताइवान[५][८][६][७]

 North Vietnam

ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong
Khmer Rouge[५][१२]
Pathet Lao[५]
 China[५][७][१२]
 North Korea[५][७][१२]

Military support:
 Soviet Union[५][७][१२]
 Cuba[५][७][१२][१३][१४]

उच्चाधिकारी तथा नेताहरू
South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm
South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
South Vietnam Cao Văn Viên
South Vietnam Ngô Quang Trưởng
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका जोन एफ केनेडी
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका लिन्डन बेन्स जोन्सन
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका रिचार्ड निक्सन
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका जेराल्ड फोर्ड
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका Robert McNamara
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका William Westmoreland
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका Creighton Abrams
संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका Frederick C. Weyand
दक्षिण कोरिया Park Chung-hee
थाइल्याण्ड Thanom Kittikachorn
अस्ट्रेलिया Robert Menzies
अस्ट्रेलिया Harold Holt
अस्ट्रेलिया John McEwen
अस्ट्रेलिया John Gorton
अस्ट्रेलिया William McMahon
फिलिपिन्स Ferdinand Marcos
न्युजिल्यान्ड Keith Holyoake
न्युजिल्यान्ड Jack Marshall
न्युजिल्यान्ड Norman Kirk
गणतन्त्र चीन Chiang Kai-Shek
and others
North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnam Lê Duẩn
North Vietnam Võ Nguyên Giáp
North Vietnam Văn Tiến Dũng
North Vietnam Lê Trọng Tấn
North Vietnam Phạm Văn Đồng
ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Hoàng Văn Thái
ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Trần Văn Trà
ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Linh
ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Hữu Thọ

and others
शक्ति
≈1,420,000 (1968)

 South Vietnam: 850,000 (1968)
1,500,000 (1974–75)
 United States: 543,000 (April 1969)
 South Korea: 50,003
 Thailand: 11,570
 Australia: 7,672
 Philippines: 2,061
 New Zealand: 552

≈860,000 (1967)

 North Vietnam: 690,000 (January 1967, included NVA and Viet Cong)
ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong: 200,000 (estimated, 1968)[२४][२५]
 China: 170,000 (1967)
 North Korea: 200

धनजनको क्षती
 South Vietnam
195,000–430,000 civilian dead–313,000 military dead
1,170,000 wounded

 United States
58,220 dead; 303,644 wounded (including 150,341 not requiring hospital care)[A २]
 South Korea
5,099 dead; 10,962 wounded; 4 missing
 Australia
521 dead; 3,129 wounded

 Thailand
351 dead; 1,358 wounded
 New Zealand
37 dead; 187 wounded
 Taiwan
25 dead;
 Philippines
9 dead;

Total military dead: 318,568–377,311
Total wounded: ≈1,340,000+[२६]

ढाँचा:Country data Republic of South Vietnam North Vietnam & Viet Cong
65,000 civilian dead[२७]
849,018 military dead
600,000+ wounded[२८]

 China
≈1,100 dead and 4,200 wounded[२९]
 North Korea
14 dead[३०]

Total military dead: 850,132+
Total wounded: ≈604,200

Vietnamese civilian dead: 627,000–2,000,000[२७][३१][३२]

Vietnamese total dead: 966,000[३३]–3,091,000[३४]
Cambodian Civil War dead: 240,000–300,000*[३५][३६][३७]
Laotian Civil War dead: 20,000–62,000*
Non-Indochinese military dead (sum): 65,425
Total dead (sum): 1,291,425–4,211,451
For more information see Vietnam War casualties and Aircraft losses of the Vietnam War
* indicates approximations

भियतनाम युद्ध (1 नोभेम्बर 1 9 55 - 30 अप्रिल 1975.) शीतयुद्ध काल मा भियतनाम, लाओसकम्बोडिया को एक भयंकर लड़ाईको नाम हो पहिलो हिन्दचीन युद्ध पछि सुरु भयो यो युद्ध उत्तरी भियतनाम (कम्युनिस्ट राष्ट्रहरु द्वारा समर्थित) र दक्षिण भियतनाम को सरकार (संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका र अन्य साम्यवादविरोधी देशहरु द्वारा समर्थित) को बीच मा युद्ध गरियो। यो "द्वितीय हिन्दचीन युद्ध" पनि भन्छन्। यो शीतयुद्ध को समयमा साम्यवादी र-विचारधारा को मध्य एक प्रतीकात्मक युद्ध को रूपमा देखा पर्यो।

सन्दर्भ[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. DoD 1998
  2. Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
  3. Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.ढाँचा:Cnf
  4. Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–46; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
  5. ५.०० ५.०१ ५.०२ ५.०३ ५.०४ ५.०५ ५.०६ ५.०७ ५.०८ ५.०९ ५.१० ५.११ ५.१२ ५.१३ ५.१४ Rohn, Alan (नोभेम्बर २६, २०१२), "What countries involved in the Vietnam War?", The Vietnam War, अन्तिम पहुँच अप्रिल ८, २०१८ 
  6. ६.०० ६.०१ ६.०२ ६.०३ ६.०४ ६.०५ ६.०६ ६.०७ ६.०८ ६.०९ ६.१० ६.११ ६.१२ ६.१३ ६.१४ ६.१५ ६.१६ ६.१७ ६.१८ ६.१९ ६.२० ६.२१ ६.२२ ६.२३ ६.२४ ६.२५ ६.२६ ६.२७ ६.२८ ६.२९ ६.३० ६.३१ ६.३२ ६.३३ ६.३४ ६.३५ ६.३६ ६.३७ ६.३८ Friedman, Herbert, "Allies of the Republic of Vietnam", psywarrior.com, अन्तिम पहुँच अप्रिल ८, २०१८ 
  7. ७.०० ७.०१ ७.०२ ७.०३ ७.०४ ७.०५ ७.०६ ७.०७ ७.०८ ७.०९ ७.१० "America Wasn’t the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War", Military History Now, अक्टोबर २, २०१३, अन्तिम पहुँच अप्रिल ८, २०१८ 
  8. Moïse 1996, pp. 3–4.
  9. Weil, Thomas E. et. al. Area Handbook for Brazil (1975), p. 293
  10. "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF), University of Malaya Student Repository, पृ: ७२, अन्तिम पहुँच १७ अक्टोबर २०१५ 
  11. "Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers)" (PDF), Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia), २००८, पृ: ३१, आइएसबिएन 978-9832220268, १६ अक्टोबर २०१५-को मूल रूप सङ्ग्रहित, अन्तिम पहुँच १७ अक्टोबर २०१५, "The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint." 
  12. १२.०० १२.०१ १२.०२ १२.०३ १२.०४ १२.०५ १२.०६ १२.०७ १२.०८ १२.०९ १२.१० १२.११ १२.१२ १२.१३ १२.१४ १२.१५ १२.१६ १२.१७ १२.१८ १२.१९ १२.२० १२.२१ १२.२२ १२.२३ १२.२४ १२.२५ १२.२६ १२.२७ "Vietnamese NLF Victory Map", Cornell University, अन्तिम पहुँच अप्रिल ८, २०१८ 
  13. The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. p. 76
  14. Cuba in the World, 1979. p. 66
  15. "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s", Bulgaria Country Study, Library of Congress, १९९२, "Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)…" 
  16. "Cesky a slovensky svet", Svet.czsk.net, अन्तिम पहुँच २४ फेब्रुअरी २०१४ 
  17. "Bilaterální vztahy České republiky a Vietnamské socialistické republiky | Mezinárodní vztahy | e-Polis – Internetový politologický časopis", E-polis.cz, अन्तिम पहुँच २४ फेब्रुअरी २०१४ 
  18. "Project MUSE – l Sailing in the Shadow of the Vietnam War: The GDR Government and the "Vietnam Bonus" of the Early 1970s" 
  19. "Stasi Aid and the Modernization of the Vietnamese Secret Police", २० अगस्ट २०१४। 
  20. २०.० २०.१ Radvanyi, Janos (१९८०), "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official", Paramaters: Journal of the US Army War College (Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania) 10 (3): 8–15। 
  21. Crump 2015, p. 183
  22. "Why did Sweden support the Viet Cong?", HistoryNet, २५ जुलाई २०१३, अन्तिम पहुँच २० जुलाई २०१६ 
  23. "Sweden announces support to Viet Cong", HISTORY.com, अन्तिम पहुँच २० जुलाई २०१६, "In Sweden, Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson reveals that Sweden has been providing assistance to the Viet Cong, including some $550,000 worth of medical supplies. Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid." 
  24. Doyle, The North, pp. 45–49
  25. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AtoZ
  26. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ReferenceA
  27. २७.० २७.१ उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lewy 1978 450_453
  28. Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
  29. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named books.google.com.vn
  30. "North Korea fought in Vietnam War", BBC News, ३१ मार्च २०००, अन्तिम पहुँच १८ अक्टोबर २०१५ 
  31. Shenon, Philip (२३ अप्रिल १९९५), "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate", The New York Times, अन्तिम पहुँच २४ फेब्रुअरी २०११  The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
  32. "fifty years of violent war deaths: data analysis from the world health survey program: BMJ", २३ अप्रिल २००८, अन्तिम पहुँच ५ जनवरी २०१३  From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths … 3.8 million in Vietnam
  33. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hirschman
  34. Obermeyer, Murray & Gakidou 2008.
  35. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Heuveline, Patrick 2001
  36. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Banister, Judith 1993
  37. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sliwinski 1995 42,48+comment


उद्दरण त्रुटी: <ref> tags exist for a group named "A", but no corresponding <references group="A"/> tag was found, or a closing </ref> is missing