नवउदारवाद

स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोश, नेपाली विकिपिडियाबाट
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नव-उदारवाद उदारवादको संशोशित रुप हो। नव उदारवादमा आर्थिक उदारीकरण, विश्वव्यापीकरण, निजीकरण, अर्थतन्त्र र समाजमा नीजी क्षेत्रको भूमिका बढाउन सरकारी खर्च कटौती, स्वतन्त्र बजारखुला अर्थतन्त्रको अवधारणाको विकास भएको छ[१][९]। नवउदारवाद भन्नाले सरकार भन्दा बजारलाई, सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक मान्यताभन्दा आर्थिक लाभ र सामूहिक क्रियाकलापभन्दा निजी व्यवसाय, उद्यमलाई प्राथमिकता दिने आर्थिक प्रणाली भन्ने बुझिन्छ। नवउदारवादको अर्थ पूँजीलाई स्वतन्त्र आवतजावत गर्न दिनु हो।

अगस्तो पिनोचे, मार्गरेट थ्याचर, रोनाल्ड रेगनको अवधारणादेखि बिल क्लिन्टन कालको अमेरिकाको डेमोक्रेटिक, बेलायतको न्यु लेबर, चीनको आर्थिक उदारीकरण र लोककल्याणकारी राज्य, स्वीडेनमा भएका आर्थिक सुधार आदिलाई नवउदारवादको प्रयोग भन्ने गरिएको छ।नवउदारवादको प्रयोग खुला बजार, उदारीकरण, निजीकरणका रुपमा पनि बुझिन्छ र बुझाइन्छ।

राजनीतिक पक्ष[सम्पादन गर्ने]

आर्थिक तथा राजनैतिक स्वतन्त्रता[सम्पादन गर्ने]

स्वतन्त्र व्यापार[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नव-उदारवादको प्रधान विशेषता भनेको स्वतन्त्र व्यापार को समर्थन हो ,[१०][११][१२][१३][१४]उत्तर अमेरिकी स्वतन्त्र व्यापार समझौता जस्ता स्वतन्त्र व्यापारलाई प्रशय दिने नीतिहरू नव-उदारवाद संग जोदिन्छन्न । [१५] नवउदारवादीहरू स्वतन्त्र व्यापारले आर्थिक वृद्धिलाई बढावा दिने[१६], गरिबी न्यूनीकरण गर्ने[१६][१०], प्रतिस्पर्धाको कारण कम मूल्य[१७], ग्राहकलाई छनोटको विकल्प दिने[१८] तर्क प्रस्तुत गर्छन्। दूई पक्ष बीचाको व्यापारमा सरकारले हस्तक्षेप र अबरोध गर्न नहुने उनीहरूको विश्वास छ ।[१९] नव-उदारवादीहरू संरक्षणवादले उपभोक्तालाई हानी पुर्याउने[२०] विश्वास राख्छन्। संरक्षणवादले उपभोक्तालाई वस्तु तथा सेवाको लागी उच्च मूल्य तिर्न बाध्य बनाउछ[२१], स्रोत साधन र संसाधनको दुरुपयोग हुन्छ[२२], लगानीलाई गलत जानकारी दिने तथा निरुत्साहित गर्छ[२२], नवीनतालाई दबाउछ[२३], अन्य उद्योग र उपभोक्ताको मूल्यमा निश्चित उद्योगको पक्षपोषण गर्छ [२४]

Monetarism[सम्पादन गर्ने]

आलोचना[सम्पादन गर्ने]

नव-उदारवादले प्राज्ञ, प्रत्रकार, धार्मिक नेता, र दुवै बामपन्थीदक्षिणपन्थी राजनीतिका अभियानकर्मीबाट आलोचनाको सामना गरेको छ [२५][२६] नव-उदारवादको उल्लेख्यानीय आलोचाकहरूमा अर्थशास्त्री जोसेफ स्तिगलित्झ,[२७] अमर्त्य सेन,[२८] माइकल हडसन् ,[२९] हा-जून च्यांग,[३०] रोबर्ट पोलिनn,[३१] Julie Matthaei,[३२] and Richard D. Wolff;[३३] linguist Noam Chomsky;[३४] भूगोलवेत्ता तथा मानवशास्त्रीDavid Harvey;[३५] Slovenian continental philosopher Slavoj Žižek,[३६] राजनैतिक अभियानकर्मी तथा सार्वजनिक बौद्धिक प्राज्ञ Cornel West;[३७] मार्क्सवादी महिलाकर्मी Gail Dines;[३८] लेखक तथा चलचित्र निर्माता Naomi Klein;[३९] क्याथोलिक चर्च प्रमुख पोप फ्रान्सिस;[४०] पत्रकार तथा वातावरण अभियानकर्मी George Monbiot;[४१] बेल्जियन मनोबिद Paul Verhaeghe;[४२] पत्रकार तथा अभियानकर्मी Chris Hedges;[४३] पुरातनवादी दार्शनिक Roger Scruton;[४४] and the alter-globalization movement, including groups such as ATTAC.

बजार कट्टरवाद[सम्पादन गर्ने]

असमानता[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Wealth inequality in the United States increased from 1989 to 2013

आलोचकहरूका अनुसार नवउदारवादी नीतिहरूले आर्थिक असमानता [४५]:7[४६] र वैश्विक गरिबी बढाएको छ ।[४५]:1–2[४७][४८]

विश्वव्यापीकरण[सम्पादन गर्ने]

साम्राज्यवाद[सम्पादन गर्ने]

वैश्विक स्वास्थ्य[सम्पादन गर्ने]

पूर्वाधार[सम्पादन गर्ने]

वातावरणीय प्रभाव[सम्पादन गर्ने]

राजनैतिक प्रतिपक्ष[सम्पादन गर्ने]

यो पनि हेर्नुहोस्[सम्पादन गर्ने]

सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. Goldstein, Natalie (२०११), Globalization and Free Trade, Infobase Publishing, पृ: ३०, आइएसबिएन 978-0-8160-8365-7 
  2. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Handbook2
  3. उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Boas2009
  4. Campbell Jones, Martin Parker, Rene Ten Bos (2005). For Business Ethics. Routledge. आइएसबिएन ०४१५३११३५७. p. 100:
    • "Neoliberalism represents a set of ideas that caught on from the mid to late 1970s, and are famously associated with the economic policies introduced by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States following their elections in 1979 and 1981. The 'neo' part of neoliberalism indicates that there is something new about it, suggesting that it is an updated version of older ideas about 'liberal economics' which has long argued that markets should be free from intervention by the state. In its simplest version, it reads: markets good, government bad."
  5. Gérard Duménil and Dominique Lévy (2004). Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution. Harvard University Press. आइएसबिएन ०६७४०११५८९ Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  6. Jonathan Arac in Peter A. Hall and Michèle Lamont in Social Resilience in the Neoliberal Era (2013) pp. xvi–xvii
    • The term is generally used by those who oppose it. People do not call themselves neoliberal; instead, they tag their enemies with the term.
  7. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
  8. "Neo-Liberal Ideas". World Health Organization.
  9. [२][३][४][५][६][७][८]
  10. १०.० १०.१ Worstall, Tim (१ मार्च २०१२), "So What is this Neoliberal Globalisation Free Trade Thing About Anyway?", Forbes 
  11. Smith, Nicola, "Neoliberalism", Encyclopædia Britannica 
  12. Gertz, Geoffrey; Kharas, Homi (अप्रिल २०१९), Beyond neoliberalism: Insights from emerging markets, The Brookings Institute। 
  13. Dieter, Plehwe (२०१२), "Neoliberalism", Center for InterAmerican Studies, Universität Bielefeld। 
  14. Cooper, Ryan (८ जनवरी २०१८), "The decline and fall of neoliberalism in the Democratic Party", The Week, "[Neoliberalism's] fundamental economic bedrock is...deregulation, tax and spending cuts, union busting, and free trade." 
  15. Rodrik, Dani (१४ नोभेम्बर २०१७), "The fatal flaw of neoliberalism: it's bad economics", The Guardian 
  16. १६.० १६.१ Moe-Lobeda, Cynthia; Spencer, Daniel (२००९), "Free Trade Agreements and the Neo-Liberal Economic Paradigm: Economic, Ecological, and Moral Consequences", Political Theology 10 (4): 685–716, डिओआई:10.1558/poth.v10i4.685, "The premise undergirding FTAs is that trade liberalization within the neo-liberal global economy produces economic growth and development among all parties, and reduces poverty in poor nations." 
  17. DeLong, Brad (२६ मे २०१७), "The Benefits of Free Trade: Time to Fly My Neoliberal Freak Flag High!: Hoisted from March 2016", Washington Center for Equitable Growth 
  18. Mishra, Pankaj (७ फेब्रुअरी २०१८), "The Rise of China and the Fall of the Fall of the 'Free Trade' Myth", New York Times Magazine, "Free markets, the thinking went, not only generated wealth for all nations but also maximized consumer choice, reduced prices and optimized the use of scarce resources." 
  19. "The Economist Explains: Why is free trade good?", The Economist, १४ मार्च २०१८। 
  20. Friedman, Milton; Friedman, Rose D. (३० अक्टोबर १९९७), "The Case for Free Trade", The Hoover Institute, "'Protection' really means exploiting the consumer." 
  21. Partington, Richard (१३ अगस्ट २०१८), "Is free trade always the answer?", The Guardian, "Economists mostly agree higher tariffs are counterproductive. While they can protect jobs, they also tend to raise the price of goods for consumers and stifle innovation that could benefit the economy." 
  22. २२.० २२.१ Friedman, Milton (१९६२), Capitalism and Freedom, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press (प्रकाशित मिति १९८२), पृ: 39, आइएसबिएन 0-226-26401-7, "Tariffs and other restrictions on international trade...give individuals an incentive to misuse and misdirect resources, and distort the investment of new savings." 
  23. Partington, Richard (१३ अगस्ट २०१८), "Is free trade always the answer?", The Guardian, "Economists argue international competition stimulates greater innovation and productivity, while warning protectionism can hinder progress." 
  24. Lincicome, Scott (२ मे २०१९), "The Case for Free Trade", The Cato Institute, "Protectionism invisibly propped up certain industries and workers at most Americans’ expense and generated the aforementioned economic and geopolitical problems." 
  25. Laurie, Timothy; Grealy, Liam (२०१७), "Higher Degree Research By Numbers: Beyond the Critiques of Neo-liberalism", Higher Education Research & Development 36 (3): 458–71, डिओआई:10.1080/07294360.2017.1288710 
  26. Plehwe, Dieter; Walpen, Bernhard; Neunhöffer, Gisela (२००६), "Introduction: Reconsidering neoliberal hegemony", Neoliberal hegemony : a global critique, London & New York: Routledge, आइएसबिएन 9780203099506, ओसिएलसी 646744326, अन्तिम पहुँच २०१८-०७-०७ 
  27. Martin, Will (अगस्ट १९, २०१६), "Nobel Prize-winning economist Stiglitz tells us why 'neoliberalism is dead'", Business Insider, अन्तिम पहुँच फेब्रुअरी ८, २०१७ 
  28. Couldry, Nick (२०१०), Why Voice Matters: Culture And Politics After Neoliberalism, SAGE Publications Ltd, पृ: ३८, आइएसबिएन 978-1848606623 
  29. Hudson, Michael (१८ जुन २०१६), "Neoliberalism Will Soon Force Americans to Leave the United States", Truthdig 
  30. Chang, Ha-Joon (२००८), Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism, New York: Random House, पृ: 229, आइएसबिएन 978-1596915985 
  31. Pollin, Robert (२००३), Contours of Descent: U.S. Economic Fractures and the Landscape of Global Austerity, New York: Verso, आइएसबिएन 978-1-84467-534-0 
  32. Matthaei, Julie (८ मार्च २०१५), "The time for a new economics is at hand", Al Jazeera, अन्तिम पहुँच ९ मार्च २०१५ 
  33. Wolff, Richard D. (2012). Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism. Haymarket Books. आइएसबिएन १६०८४६२४७१. p. 37.
  34. Chomsky, Noam and McChesney, Robert W. (Introduction). Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. Seven Stories Press, 2011. आइएसबिएन १८८८३६३८२७. [१]
  35. Harvey, David (२००५), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, आइएसबिएन 978-0-19-928326-2 
  36. Žižek, Slavoj (२०१८), The Courage of Hopelessness: A Year of Acting Dangerously, Melville House, पृ: ५९, आइएसबिएन 978-1612190037 
  37. Goodbye, American neoliberalism. A new era is here. The Guardian. 17 November 2016.
  38. Dines, Gail, "From the Personal is Political to the Personal is Personal: Neoliberalism and the Defanging of Feminism", YouTube, अन्तिम पहुँच अगस्ट ५, २०१३ 
  39. It was the Democrats' embrace of neoliberalism that won it for Trump. Naomi Klein for The Guardian. 9 November 2016.
  40. "Pope Francis Laments Failures Of Market Capitalism In Blueprint For Post-COVID World", NPR.org (अङ्ग्रेजीमा), अन्तिम पहुँच २०२०-१०-०५ 
  41. George Monbiot (15 April 2016). Neoliberalism – the ideology at the root of all our problems. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  42. Paul Verhaeghe (29 September 2014). Neoliberalism has brought out the worst in us. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  43. VIDEO: Chris Hedges on the Big Lie of Neoliberalism and the Very Real Threat of a President Trump. Truthdig. September 14, 2015.
  44. Scruton, Roger (१० सेप्टेम्बर २०१४), "Why it's so much harder to think like a Conservative", The Guardian 
  45. ४५.० ४५.१ Haymes, Stephen; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Miller, Reuben, सम्पादकहरू (२०१५), The Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States, London: Routledge, आइएसबिएन 978-0415673440 
  46. Dean, Jodi (२०१२), The Communist Horizon, Verso, पृ: १२३, आइएसबिएन 978-1844679546, "Pursued through policies of privatization, deregulation, and financialization, and buttressed by an ideology of private property, free markets, and free trade, neoliberalism has entailed cuts in taxes for the rich and cuts in protections and benefits for workers and the poor, resulting in an exponential increase in inequality." 
  47. Jones, Campbell; Parker, Martin; Ten Bos, Rene (२००५), For Business Ethics, Routledge, पृ: १०१, आइएसबिएन 978-0415311359, "Critics of neoliberalism have therefore looked at the evidence that documents the results of this great experiment of the past 30 years, in which many markets have been set free. Looking at the evidence, we can see that the total amount of global trade has increased significantly, but that global poverty has increased, with more today living in abject poverty than before neoliberalism." 
  48. Jason Hickel (February 13, 2019). An Open Letter to Steven Pinker (and Bill Gates). Jacobin. Retrieved February 13, 2019.

बाह्य कडीहरू[सम्पादन गर्ने]