पश्चिमी भारत

नेपाली विकिपीडियाबाट, एक स्वतन्त्र विश्वकोष
यसमा जानुहोस्: परिचालन, खोज्नुहोस्

यो लेख वा खण्ड नेपाली भाषामा नभएर अर्को भाषामा लेखिएको छ।
यदि यो लेखमा तपाईंको योगदान छ भने यसलाई नेपाली भाषामा उल्था गर्नुहोला।
एक महिनासम्म उल्थानभएमा यसलाई हटाएर नयाँ लेख बनाइने छ ।
पश्चिमी भारत

पश्चिमी भारत भन्नाले भारतको पश्चिमी भाग जसमा गोवा, महाराष्ट्र, केन्द्र शासित प्रदेश दमन अनि दीउ र नगर हवेली पर्दछन् । यी सबै क्षेत्रहरु भारतको भागको रुपमा स्वतन्त्रताको समयदेखि नैं सामेल छन्।

यो एक अत्यधिक ठूलो आबादी भएको औद्योगीकृत शहर हो, [३]. पश्चिमी भारतको अधिकांश मराठि साम्राज्यको ब्रिटिश उपनिवेशवाद भन्दा पहिले भाग गएको थियो. The regions became part of India on independence, and took their current form after the States Reorganization Act of १९५६[४]. The states are roughly bounded by the Thar Desert in the northwest, the Vindhya Range in the north and the Arabian Sea in the west. A major portion of Western India shares the Deccan Plateau with South India. Before the partition of India, Sindh and Balochistan were also included in this region.

इतिहास[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Greatest extent of the Maratha Empire in the 1700s

(For detailed history please read the respective articles of the three western states: Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat)

Parts of Gujarat were the site of Indus Valley Civilization. Sites have been uncovered in Gujarat at Lothal, Surkotada, and around Ghaggar river in Rajasthan. The Western Indian region was ruled by the Maurya Kingdom, Gurjar, Rajputs, Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Indo Greeks etc in the ancients times. During the medieval age, the region came under Persian influence and also under the Mughal rule. Later, the Maratha Empire which arose in western Maharashtra came to dominate a major portion of the Indian sub-continent. However its defeat by the British in the Anglo-Maratha wars left most of India under colonial rule. The region then experienced great upheavals during the struggle for Indian Independence. Gandhi's Dandi March took place in Gujarat. The region became part of independent India in १९४७, and the present state boundaries were drawn based on linguistic considerations in १९५६[१].

भूगोल[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Konkan in monsoon

The region consists of the predominantly arid to semi-arid region of Saurashtra, Kutch and Cambay in the North. The Western Ghats and Konkan lie along the coast of Maharashtra and Goa. The Deccan plains of the Vidarbha, Marathwada in central and eastern Maharashtra define the rest of the region. The vegetation varies from tropical rainforests along the Konkan coast to thorny bushes and shrubs in northern Gujarat. The major rivers in this region are Narmada, Tapti, Godavari, Zuari, Mandovi, Krishna, Ghaggar, Chambal and many other smaller tributaries of other rivers. The Narmada and Tapti rivers generally form the boundary between Northern and Southern India.

जलवायु[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The climate varies between tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, and semi arid. The coastal regions experience little seasonal variations although the temperatures range between २०°C to ३८°C. Mumbai and northern Konkan regions experience cooler winters with minimum temperatures hovering around १२ °C. Interior Maharashtra experiences hot summers with maximum temperatures averaging ४०°C and mild winters with minimum temperatures averaging about १०°C. Gujarat also has a warm climate with hot summers and cool winters.

जनसांख्यिकी[सम्पादन गर्ने]

A Meghwal woman in the Hodka village, north of Bhuj.

The majority follow Hinduism and there are significant minority who follow Islam and smaller number who follow Buddhism and Christianity. There are also a few indigenous Jews called the Bene Israel who speak Marathi. The Parsees who settled in Gujarat made Mumbai and Surat their home. Significant percentages of Jains and Buddhists can be found too. Most Christians live in the state of Goa.

Overall, ८३.६६ % of the population is Hindu, १०.१२ % Muslim, ४ % Buddhist with Christians in Goa and Maharashtra making up the majority of the remainder. Marathi, with about ७३ million speakers is the most widely spoken language, followed by Gujarati with about ४६ million speakers and Konkani २.५ million speakers, all of which are Indo-Aryan languages.[२]. As in other parts of India, a high level of multilingualism is seen with English and Hindi being spoken as additional languages in urban areas[३].

The average literacy rate of West India is around ७६%, higher than the national average of ७०.५%[४]. The population density is around २९० per square km. The average fertility rate is about २.२, while the average household size is about ४.७[४].

संस्कृति[सम्पादन गर्ने]

The states of Maharashtra, Goa and Gujarat are varied and distinct. Goa has a Latin aura due to centuries of Portuguese rule. The architecture and cuisine of Goa is a unique blend of Indian and Portuguese cultures. Goa is also well known for its beaches, temples and churches. Maharashtrian culture derives from the ancient Indo-Aryan Vedic culture influenced deeply by the Maratha Empire and British colonial rule. Maharashtrians take great pride in the Maratha Empire, and many places in Maharashtra are named after the founder of the Empire, Shivaji. Marathi literature and cinema are popular in the state as well as across India.

Gujarati culture is a blend of Hindu and Jain traditions. It has also been influenced by the Parsis, who migrated to Gujarat from Iran about a 1000 years ago. Recently events like Rann Utsav, International Kite Festival and Global Garba festivals have been started to showcase it's culture internationally. Mumbai and Goa are renowned for their nightlifes. Bollywood has had a huge impact on the lifestyle and culture of this part of India as Bollywood is situated in Mumbai.

खानपान[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Pav bhaji from Mumbai, Maharashtra
Chaat, which originated in Gujarat is popular all over India

The cuisine of Western India is diverse. Maharashtrian cuisine is diverse and ranges from bland to fiery hot. Pohay, Shrikhand, Pav Bhaji, Vada Pav are good examples of Maharashtrian cuisine. Goan cuisine is dominated by the use of cashewnuts, coconuts and seafood. Pork Vindaloo and Xacuti are famous goan curries. Bebinca is a sweet prepared with eggs and coconuts.

Gujarati cuisine is almost exclusively vegetarian. Gujarat is one of three states in India, with prohibition on alcohol, along with Mizoram and Manipur[५]. In contrast, Maharashtra has some of the best vineyards in India, with Nashik and Sangli districts being the country's biggest grape-producing districts[६].

अर्थव्यवस्था[सम्पादन गर्ने]

Mumbai, Maharashtra is the financial capital of the country

The region generates २०.३४% of the national GDP of the country, with an annual growth rate of १४.५% as of २००६[७]. The states generate about २३ % of the tax revenues of the country. More than ८५% of the households have access to electricity with about ५५% owning a television. Agriculture employs most people in the region, while services have largest share in the total GDP.

References[सम्पादन गर्ने]

  1. "States Reorganization Act". http://www.commonlii.org/in/legis/num_act/sra1956250/. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-12. 
  2. "2001 Census language data". http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement4.htm. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11. 
  3. India and its Languages "Indian and its languages". http://www.lilaproject.org/docs/India%20and%20its%20Languages%20v1.0.pdf India and its Languages. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11. 
  4. ४.० ४.१ "NFHS fact sheet". http://www.nfhsindia.org/pdf/IN.pdf. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11. 
  5. "Alcohol Prohibition and Addictive Consumption in India". http://www.eudnet.net/workshops/workshop10-2002/rahman.pdf. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11. 
  6. "Wine Industry in Maharashtra: An Analysis". http://www.ccsindia.org/ccsindia/interns2003/chap21.pdf. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11. 
  7. "STATEMENT : GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CURRENT PRICES". http://mospi.nic.in/6_gsdp_cur_9394ser.htm. अन्तिम पहुँच मिति: 2008-03-11.